green line oberstufe
green line oberstufe
auflage alle drucke dieser auflage sind unverändert und können im unterricht nebeneinander verwendet werden die letzte zahl bezeichnet das jahr des druckes das werk und seine teile sind urheberrechtlich geschützt jede nutzung in anderen als den gesetzlich zugelassenen fällen bedarf der vorherigen schriftlichen einwilligung des verlages hinweis urhg weder das werk noch seine teile dürfen ohne eine solche einwilligung eingescannt und in ein netzwerk eingestellt werden dies gilt auch für intranets von schulen und sonstigen bildungseinrichtungen fotomechanische oder andere wiedergabeverfahren nur mit genehmigung des verlages ernst klett verlag gmbh stuttgart 2021 alle rechte vorbehalten www.klett.de das vorliegende material dient ausschließlich gemäß 60b urhg dem einsatz im unterricht an schulen autorinnen und autoren daniel becker wuppertal dr steffen brand grünkraut louise carleton-gertsch münchen dr martin genetsch schweich bärbel hafner-wünning ebersbach fils cornelia kaminski fulda nilgül karabulut-klöppelt aachen laura kassebeer leipzig prof frauke matz meerbusch florian otte schwarmstedt michael rogge mülheim an der ruhr anna schönbach speyer jana tokaryk berlin reiner verspai rheinbach prof harald sonntag-weisshaar bisingen-zimmern bernd wick neckartenzlingen dr christine wieckenberg hamburg beratung melanie borchers heidgraben ellen butzko tübingen paul dennis lahnstein andrea holler dachau cornelia kaminski fulda hartmut klose seevetal antje körber merseburg geneviève löwe rostock berit möckel nürnberg florian otte schwarmstedt dr thomas tepe münster prof harald sonntag-weisshaar bisingen-zimmern bernd wick neckartenzlingen entstanden in zusammenarbeit mit dem projektteam des verlages gestaltung normaldesign gbr schwäbisch gmünd umschlaggestaltung normaldesign gbr schwäbisch gmünd satz media office gmbh kornwestheim marion köster stuttgart reproduktion schwabenrepro gmbh fellbach druck firmengruppe appl aprinta druck wemding printed in germany green line oberstufe
choices in work and society section text theme media type of text introduction choices for your future quotes visuals statistics spot on facts building future for yourself informative texts abi skills mediation mediation statistics texts texts my choice matters half sleep matt krampitz why aren’t young people more involved in politics deutschlands jugend politisch wie nie irish teenagers favour traditional occupations short story article mediation article listening advanced texts college may not be worth it anymore the time of my life sylvia plath article novel extract 21st century skills critical thinking texts texts succeeding in the world of work not simply overtime work young people are going to save us all from office life am the future of work women in the workforce article article visuals viewing statistics advanced texts the challenge of being in the new contract workforce when globalisation meshes with robotics the losers will be the middle classes statistics listening article topic task conducting study skills essential skills for school work and exams diff pool supporting advanced and alternative tasks appendix glossary of literary terms inhaltsverzeichnis symbole verweis auf leichte aufgaben hilfe im diff pool verweis auf anspruchsvollere aufgaben → s26.1 verweis auf den skillsanhang partnerarbeit gruppenarbeit verweis auf audios verweis auf videos
young people are angry teenage activists shaping our future the guardian university graduates face tough competition and low salaries as they enter the workforce south china morning post too many teens aspire to be teachers and lawyers cnbc choices in work and society introduction
brainstorming make list of the things you enjoy doing and are good at pass the lists around for each list you get make suggestions which career choices you would recommend based on the talents and preferences given briefly explain your choices present your results to the class and react to the recommendations you were given speaking prepare one-minute statement about what you expect your ideal job to be like drawing from the results of task visuals make list of the challenges and possibilities of the future of work as represented in the images and headlines add more ideas of your own using your ideas from part come up with caption for each of the images choose picture that best suits your own short-term or long-term goals after finishing school explain your choice awareness look back at the career options you discussed for yourselves in grid split them into jobs that may be done by artificial intelligence ai rather than human work in the future and those which you think will always remain ‘human jobs’ discuss giving reasons how soon the switch could be made from human to ai jobs and which sector might make the transition first useful phrases compassionate good team player resilient hard-working creative generous serious clever analytical artistic even-tempered curious cautious impulsive inventive useful phrases job satisfaction to carve niche for yourself to earn good living to be self-employed/ to be your own boss/to run your own business to be stuck behind desk nine-to-five/ high-powered/dead-end job heavy workload to combine family and career to work from home to be nomad/remote worker/ commuter to telecommute job security vs independence full-time/part-time/flexitime team worker/a leader gain work experience break from academic track parents/peers encouraged learn other anguage expore career options vounteer expore study options gain ife experiences/grow personay trave experience other cutures motivations for taking gap year other from the gap year association website 2020 of survey respondents who said this reason inﬂuenced their decision to take gap year tip writing good caption use the present tense it creates sense of immediacy or gerund for your verbs don’t start your captions with an article a/an the they waste space avoid humour when the image isn’t humorous choose meaningful adjectives
My ideal job
my talents/character traits: I am …
• compassionate and understanding.
• diligent and hard-working.
• serious and focused.
• resilient yet flexible.
my interests: I enjoy …
• working closely with people of all ages/communicating.
• being able to make people feel better/offering advice.
• assisting those who need my help/the feeling of helping others.
• making decisions and following them through.
my job expectations: I want …
• a job that satisfies me and doesn’t just pay my rent.
• to combine family and career and to work close to my home.
• to be my own boss and lead a team of employees.
Conclusion: This is why I would like to become a doctor with my own practice.
a) – c) Things you enjoy doing and are good at
individual answers given in key sentences, such as:
I am …
• compassionate – enjoy helping seniors with their chores
• hard-working – am willing to put in a lot of effort to reach my goals
• analytical – prefer solving problems by thinking about them carefully
• creative – love designing and creating my own jewellery
a) The future of work
• creating gender equality in the job market
• problem of combining family needs and a career
• changing roles and expectations for men and women at work and at home
• Graduates face a globalised competition for jobs.
• More competition leads to starting salaries.
• As machines take over manual jobs, there is a rising need for highly skilled employees while untrained workers risk being laid off.
• Young people have to rethink their career choices and adapt to the changing technological environment.
• Relying on traditional jobs increases the risk of future unemployment.
• Multi-national companies expect their employees to be flexible and willing to move frequently.
• Women can pursue careers that were formerly reserved for men.
• More females have access to (higher) education than ever before.
• It has become socially acceptable for men to take time off from work to raise their children.
youth activism and a changing workplace
• Social media helps to unite young people from all over the world in their pursuit of common goals (such as a healthy balance between economic progress and social as well as ecological needs).
work-life balance/learning beyond school
• A growing number of companies lets their employees take gap years or sabbaticals.
• Students increasingly regard gap years as beneficial to their personal and academic development.
• New technologies have created new job possibilities and allow for greater flexibility with regard to working hours and telecommuting.
b) Suggested captions
1. Greater access to education creates more gender equality.
2. Young people are making their voices heard.
3. New technologies have reshaped the job market.
4. Combining family and a career is a challenge for both sexes.
5. The benefits of gapping.
c) Short-term or long-term goals
a) Career options
Jobs that might be done by artificial intelligence
• call-centre workers
• surgeons (for routine operations)
• jobs in the restaurant/hotel industry (i.e. serving food, cooking simple meals, working at hotel receptions or in room service)
• generally lower income jobs in the service industry (cashiers, people stocking the shelves in supermarkets)
• policemen (crime scene analysis, putting together reports)
• jobs in manufacturing (on the assembly line)
• jobs in landscaping, gardening
• secretarial jobs
• bank clerks
Jobs that will possibly remain “human jobs”
• teachers • doctors (for personal interaction)
• policemen (for interviews, personal interaction)
• caregivers (for small children, the elderly)
b) The switch: when and how it will take place
• In some sectors, the switch is already taking place (online banking, ATMs, automated call centres, self-service cash registers, ticket machines, online clothes and food shopping, robots stocking shelves or serving food in restaurants, robots performing or assisting with operations etc.).
• The switch is being accelerated by our need to access fast and convenient services 24/7 and by various cost-cutting measures which are already being implemented (call centre computers need no breaks and can work for 24 hours a day, online stores are always open; ATMs offer fast and convenient cash even outside business hours).
• Sectors involving simple, repetitive tasks that require little decision-making will probably make the transition first (especially in sectors that are already transitioning to increased automation).
text more than third of all american high school graduates plan gap year before starting their postsecondary education they choose from wide field of experiential learning with backpacking volunteering and internships abroad among the most commonly favoured options majority of former gappers say their year off has deepened their practical personal and professional awareness it has also improved their employability by teaching them soft skills as well as boosting their cv others stress that they now have better grasp of what they want to study and have earned money to pay for their education key to successful gap year is careful planning and structure making it rewarding experience at any age thus the idea of sabbatical to bridge different stages of life has become increasingly attractive to older professionals as well employers have come to appreciate adult gappers returning with renewed energy and perspective to their former jobs text on the face of it the differences between university education in the us and europe have all but disappeared in the last decade with european universities having replaced many specialised national degrees with bachelor’s or master’s programmes graduates can now go job-hunting on global scale without having to explain how their degrees compare to international standards however while germany’s public university system is based entirely on public funding and its students pay no tuition fees access to higher education and affordability are becoming an increasing problem for secondary school graduates in the us once the global leader in producing talent pool of college graduates the us are now losing ground to emerging nations from asia the us are suffering from so-called college attainment gap as the wealthiest are almost certain to get university degree while only 50 % of students from the poorest families apply for college student debt isn’t isolated to the us however in the uk where there is limit to what universities can charge for single year three-quarters of the universities in the country are currently asking for the maximum amount possible the average uk student leaves university with student loan of over £35,000 to repay text according to the three-sector theory all economic activity can be classified into subdivisions the primary sector involves natural resources or raw materials such as mining or agriculture the secondary sector manufactures products or goods companies that provide services such as banks or insurance firms make up the tertiary sector the more advanced an economy is the more its focus shifts from the primary through the secondary to the tertiary sector in the past jobs have been classified as bluecollar or white-collar originally referring to the typical clothing people wore at work while whitecollar worker might be employed at an office bluecollar workers would typically work in various nonoffice settings such as construction sites or assembly lines manual labour is characteristic of blue-collar jobs as many white-collar jobs require degrees they tend to pay better than blue-collar jobs of course skilled machine operator can still make more money than shop assistant globalisation and the relocation of production lines to low-cost countries have made blue-collar workers most vulnerable to unemployment the least qualified were frequently the first to be laid off building future for yourself spot on facts
text the term ‘automation’ describes the use of machines to carry out processes that run on their own without human intervention such as the technology used in assembly lines that reduces the number of people required to build car automation is designed to simplify human activities and reduce costs other goals of automation are to make production faster more accurate and increasingly reliable advocates of automation argue that it has helped humans to optimise their industrial activities by getting rid of the most monotonous tasks to focus on the essential ones they claim that automation assists the workers without replacing them however the need to re-skill has risen for many and college degree is no longer guarantee of finding work in general automation is expected to cause the number of available jobs to lessen over time while automation is generally reserved for the production sector digitalisation is applied to the business sector it refers to the transformation of business processes using digital technology with the ultimate goal of increasing profit and efficiency at present it is mostly used to collect and analyse data text gender inequality is often driven by existing gender stereotypes that determine how we perceive the roles of women and men in society every member of family plays role in the home and in society as whole however individual roles have been changing as traditional family roles are evolving these roles such as the father as the major breadwinner and worker and the mother as the homemaker and caregiver are now declining as higher percentage of well-educated women have entered the workforce over the last decades issues of gender inequality have become increasingly apparent gender inequality on the whole is result of persistent discrimination against one group of people based upon gender and it may manifest itself differently according to culture religion country and their economic situation in general the term ‘gender gap’ refers to the different treatment of women and men as reflected in social political intellectual cultural or economic achievements or attitudes the economic gap for example is the difference between men and women’s salaries the smaller number of women in leadership positions and their overall participation in the workplace most economists agree that gender inequality is barrier to development in the long run comprehension get together in groups each group covers one of the topics mentioned in the texts in your group deal with your text by following these steps skim the text agree on the topic write down at least three questions you have on the topic think about the concepts background information presented your general understanding of the topic read the text carefully keeping your questions in mind note down key words look up all the words you do not understand make list of the essential vocabulary required to understand the topic covered in your text expand your lists include collocations synonyms antonyms word families using your key words and vocabulary create visualisation of the text speaking present your visualisations to the class by using the essential vocabulary you have selected language choose one of the other groups’ visualisations summarise their text in few sentences using as many of the words from their essential vocabulary list as possible choices in work and society
Steps 1 – 5
Text A: The advantages of taking a gap year
• How many students take gap years? (more than a third of all US high school graduates)
• At which point in your academic or professional life is a gap year beneficial? (before starting university or later during your professional career)
• Why do people take gap years? (to gain life experience, to improve their CVs, to earn money, to think about their future plans)
• What do people do during their gap years? (volunteering, backpacking, working abroad)
Suggestions for essential vocabulary
experiential learning, backpacking, volunteering, internship, practical/personal/professional awareness, employability, soft skills, CV (curriculum vitae)/resumé, sabbatical, to bridge, gapper
Text B: The differences in university education around the world
• How does university education differ on an international level? (degrees are comparable (bachelor’s and master’s); some countries provide education for free (e.g. Germany) while others ask for tuition (e.g. US, UK))
• What is the situation for US college students? (It has become more difficult to get a college education; wealthy students usually get a degree whereas only half of the poorer students apply for college.)
• How does the UK compare? (While tuition fees are limited, the majority of UK universities are currently asking for the maximum; students usually graduate with a large amount of debt.)
Suggestions for essential vocabulary
graduate, job-hunting, degree, international standard, public funding, tuition fees, affordability, secondary school, talent pool, college attainment gap, to apply, student debt/student loan, to charge
Text C: The three sectors of the economy
• Which are the three sectors of economic activity? (primary sector: agriculture and mining (natural resources); secondary sector: manufacturing; tertiary sector: service industry (banks, insurance companies))
• How are jobs classified? (white-collar: office jobs (usually require degrees and pay better); bluecollar: manual work (e.g. on an assembly line; generally require practical skills and offer lower pay))
• Which dangers do blue-collar jobs face? (Outsourcing and/or relocation leads to lay-offs and job insecurity/unemployment.)
Suggestions for essential vocabulary
three-sector theory, subdivision, primary/secondary/tertiary, raw material, to manufacture, service, blue-collar, white-collar, assembly line, (non-)office setting, globalisation, relocation, (un)employment, to lay off
Text D: The rise of automation and its consequences
• What does automation mean? (the use of machines to carry out processes without human interference)
• What are the aims of automation? (to simplify human activities and save money; to increase production and reliability and reduce mistakes; to help humans focus on essential work and let machines do the rest)
• What are the consequences of automation? (need for further training; number of jobs is expected to decrease)
• Which sectors are affected? (manufacturing and business (digitalisation used for the collection and analysis of data))
Suggestions for essential vocabulary
automation, process, human intervention, to reduce, to optimise, industrial activity, accurate, reliable, monotonous task, to reskill, digitalisation, efficiency, data
Text E: Aspects of gender inequality
• What is gender inequality? (driven by stereotypes about the roles of men and women in society; persistent discrimination against people based on their gender; hampers progress in the long run)
• How have gender roles changed? (men no longer the main breadwinners and women no longer the main caregivers; well-educated women have entered the workforce)
• What are manifestations of gender inequality? (The gender gap refers to different aspects of discrimination (e.g. regarding society, culture or the economy); the economic gap concerns the difference in pay and general disadvantages regarding work.)
Suggestions for essential vocabulary
gender, inequality, stereotype, to perceive, to evolve, society, breadwinner, caregiver, apparent, persistent, discrimination, to manifest itself, economic gap, leadership, participation, barrier, development
mediation step understanding task brainstorming make list of situations in which you might be asked to mediate information from german to english consider written and spoken contexts comprehension before writing mediation text you will have to analyse the given task carefully for each of the following tasks identify the addressee the information you will need to provide the required text type and the register formal or informal make chart mediation task your american high school friend is doing project on “equal opportunity among young people” your friend would like to know how young germans assess their future career chances write an email to your friend based on the information provided in the article focussing on how social class race and access to higher education influence upward mobility mediation task your partner school in australia is launching ‘diversity in global education’ project for which they have started blog on their website you have been asked to contribute an article about the different options available to young germans after leaving school use the information from the given sources make sure you explain some basics of the german educational system to make your article understandable for an international readership step finding relevant information before you start discuss which aspects of post-secondary education in germany might be interesting for international readers make short list read the following texts including the statistics circle the aspects from your list that these texts cover text duale berufsausbildung in deutschland gibt es eine besondere art seinen beruf zu lernen die duale berufsausbildung die duale ausbildung besteht aus viel praktischer arbeit sie dauert meistens zwischen zwei und dreieinhalb jahre und hat zwei phasen jede woche sind sie einen oder zwei tage oder in längeren zusammenhängenden blöcken in einer berufsschule dort vermitteln ihnen lehrerinnen und lehrer theoretisches wissen an den anderen tagen sind sie dann in einem unternehmen und wenden dieses wissen an indem sie zum beispiel an einer maschine mitarbeiten außerdem sehen sie wie das unternehmen funktioniert was es macht und ob sie sich vorstellen können dort später weiterzuarbeiten die kombination aus theorie und praxis bereitet auszubildende besonders gut auf das vor was firmen von ihnen erwarten nicht nur fachwissen sondern auch praktische erfahrung darin dieses wissen anzuwenden und bei den rund anerkannten ausbildungsgängen in deutschland finden auch sie sicher einen der ihnen spaß macht und ihren talenten entspricht welcher genau das sein könnte können sie zum beispiel auf einer der zahlreichen ausbildungsmessen herausfinden die regelmäßig in verschiedenen deutschen städten veranstaltet werden die duale ausbildung bietet ihnen sehr gute chancen auf eine stelle und ist deshalb besonders populär bei deutschen schülerinnen und schülern rund zwei drittel aller jugendlichen die die schule verlassen machen anschließend eine ausbildung abi skills
Examples for everyday situations requiring mediation from German to English
• when using German sources for an English text in a school assignment (e.g. German textbooks or internet sources)
• when putting together an application for an internship or a college abroad (e.g. when translating extracurricular activities or special skills you want to include in your CV)
• showing guests from abroad around your school/hometown/etc. (e.g. as part of an exchange program)
• helping a tourist out on the train/at the station/on the street (e.g. when buying a ticket, ordering food, asking for directions etc.)
• when using a German guidebook while on holiday abroad and asking locals for help
• addressee: your American high school friend
• information: how young Germans assess their future career chances (how social class, race and access to higher education influence upward mobility)
• required text type: e-mail
• register: informal
• addressee: Australian readers of a school blog (members of the school community)
• information: the different options available to young Germans after leaving school
• required text type: blog post
• register: neutral (informal bits may be used as stylistic devices)
a) What might interest foreigners about post-secondary education in Germany
• Which qualifications are necessary to attend college or university?
• What percentage of graduates apply to university?
• How expensive is it to attend university?
• How many years do students usually spend at university?
• What are the most popular subjects?
• Are there any other options for graduates apart from attending college and/or university?
b) individual answers, the answers will depend on the students’ individual lists
From the list above, only the following aspects were mentioned:
• qualifications necessary to attend university (Hochschulreife)
• (no percentages given for university applications, only absolute numbers: about 500 ,000 in 2019)
• other options: combination of vocational training and school (duale Ausbildung)
The other questions are not answered.
einkommen in der dualen berufsausbildung in deutschland bekommen sie während der dualen ausbildung jeden monat ein gehalt von dem unternehmen bei dem sie arbeiten im durchschnitt verdienen auszubildende aktuell 908 euro brutto je nach beruf und der region in der sie arbeiten können sie mehr oder auch weniger erhalten neben der praktischen arbeit im unternehmen besuchen sie während der ausbildung die berufsschule dort lernen sie nicht nur deutsch englisch und sozialkunde zwei drittel der stunden bestehen aus themen die speziell für ihren ausbildungsberuf wichtig sind während der ausbildung stehen ihnen mindestens werktage oder vier wochen urlaub pro jahr zu allerdings nur in der zeit in der die schule auch ferienzeit hat verlauf einer dualen ausbildung nach der ersten hälfte ihrer ausbildung müssen sie eine zwischenprüfung bestehen bei der sie zeigen müssen was sie in der schule gelernt haben und wie sie es im unternehmen anwenden die ausbildung endet mit einer abschlussprüfung from the demografie portal website 2020 text die berufliche ausbildung in deutschland wird international oft als vorbild gesehen die dadurch gewonnenen jungen fachkräfte sind ein wichtiger erfolgsfaktor der deutschen volkswirtschaft dennoch verliert die berufsausbildung gegenüber dem studium zunehmend an bedeutung während die zahl der studenten in den letzten jahrzehnten kontinuierlich wuchs ist die zahl der auszubildenden azubis gesunken dieser entwicklung zugrunde liegt ein höherer anteil an jugendlichen die in der schule die hochschulreife erwerben from the german “demografie-portal” website 2020 language paraphrase the following terms in english berufsausbildung studium ausbildungsgang auszubildende azubis duale ausbildung ausbildungsberuf berufsschule hochschulreife fachkräfte ausbilder/in statistisches bundesamt 2020 1992 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2019 ausbildungsund studienanfänger 1992–2019 neu abgeschlossene ausbildungsverträge und studienanfänger im hochschulsemester studenten auszubildende tip when mediating german text into english you might come across words or expressions that have no exact english equivalent helpful strategies include paraphrasing use relative clause to explain noun in more detail “unlike the english meaning of the word german gymnasium is school which prepares its students for university education.” breaking down longer words into their parts zwischenprüfung zwischen intermediate prüfung exam” replacing nouns with verbs schulabgänger students finishing school” choices in work and society
• Berufsausbildung: vocational training
• Studium: university/college education/academic studies
• Ausbildungsgang: (vocational) training course
• Auszubildende (Azubis): trainees/(auch:) apprentices (antiquiert, v. a. bei handwerklichen Berufen)
• duale Ausbildung: dual education/training which combines vocational training on the job and classes at a vocational school
• Ausbildungsberuf: job/occupation that requires vocational training
• Berufsschule: vocational school
• Hochschulreife: general qualification for university entrance/German equivalent to A levels
• Fachkräfte: skilled workers/skilled labour/specialised personnel
• Ausbilder/in: instructor/trainer
comprehension reread mediation task using copy of the text or your ebook use different colours to mark relevant parts for these key aspects in the texts how duale ausbildung combines study and work the advantages of this type of training and the post-secondary education choices young germans favour create first outline for your blog using the key aspects from part as your subtopics leave space for your notes under each headline now use the information you marked in the german texts to make your notes in english key words or phrases for each key aspect in your outline remember to use your paraphrases from task first outline of the blog article introduction main part key aspect how duale ausbildung combines study and work notes vocational training which combines/consists of etc key aspect the advantages of this type of training notes highly skilled/ qualified experts etc key aspect post-secondary education choices young germans favour notes to attain university degree etc conclusion step producing target text mediation write the blog article from mediation task for your partner school follow these steps remember that most of your readers will be members of the school community teachers students and their immediate families start with an appropriate introduction that will catch their attention and motivate them to keep on reading you could choose from one of the following options personal experience e.g your own thoughts about what to do after school quote e.g from the website an interesting fact e.g from the online resource key term e.g duale ausbildung using your outline from task start composing the main body of your text for the ending round your text off by summing up your main points offering your personal opinion or presenting an outlook on what the future of post-secondary education in germany might be like tip it’s usually good idea to address your readers directly with question and then to go on by answering this question in your text in the main part of your text follow your outline by covering each aspect of the given task language check your text by reviewing the following aspects text type does your text resemble blog article register is the style you used appropriate for your audience length did you include relevant information only content do your paraphrases make sense to person unfamiliar with germany coherence did you use transitions and linking words to connect different ideas/ paragraphs correctness are your grammar spelling and punctuation correct abi skills
a) Relevant parts for the key aspects
1. How duale Ausbildung combines study and work
• “Jede Woche sind Sie einen oder zwei Tage oder in längeren zusammenhängenden Blöcken an einer Berufsschule. Dort vermitteln Ihnen Lehrerinnen und Lehrer theoretisches Wissen.” (Text A, ll. 6 – 10)
• “An den anderen Tagen sind Sie dann in einem Unternehmen und wenden dieses Wissen an, indem Sie zum Beispiel an einer Maschine mitarbeiten.” (Text A, ll. 10 – 13)
• “Neben der praktischen Arbeit im Unternehmen besuchen Sie während der Ausbildung die Berufsschule. Dort lernen Sie nicht nur Deutsch, Englisch und Sozialkunde. Zwei Drittel der Stunden bestehen aus Themen, die speziell für Ihren Ausbildungsberuf wichtig sind.” (Text A, ll. 40 – 45)
• “Nach der ersten Hälfte Ihrer Ausbildung müssen Sie eine Zwischenprüfung bestehen, bei der Sie zeigen müssen, was Sie in der Schule gelernt haben und wie Sie es im Unternehmen anwenden.” (Text A, ll. 51 – 54)
2. The advantages of this type of training
• “Die Kombination aus Theorie und Praxis bereitet Auszubildende besonders gut auf das vor, was Firmen von ihnen erwarten: nicht nur Fachwissen, sondern auch praktische Erfahrungen darin, dieses Wissen anzuwenden.” (Text A, ll. 16 – 20)
• “Die duale Ausbildung bietet Ihnen sehr gute Chancen auf eine Stelle.” (Text A, ll. 27 – 28)
• “In Deutschland bekommen Sie während der dualen Ausbildung jeden Monat ein Gehalt von dem Unternehmen, bei dem Sie arbeiten.” (Text A, ll. 34 – 36)
• “Die dadurch gewonnenen jungen Fachkräfte sind ein wichtiger Erfolgsfaktor der deutschen Volkswirtschaft.” (Text B, ll. 2 – 4)
3. The post-secondary educational choices that young Germans favour
• “Rund zwei Drittel aller Jugendlichen, die die Schule verlassen, machen anschließend eine Ausbildung.” (Text A, ll. 30 – 32)
• “Während die Zahl der Studenten in den letzten Jahrzehnten kontinuierlich wuchs, ist die Zahl der Auszubildenden (Azubis) gesunken. Dieser Entwicklung zugrunde liegt ein höherer Anteil an Jugendlichen, die in der Schule die Hochschulreife erwerben.” (Text B, ll. 6 – 11)
• 2019: die gleiche Anzahl an neu abgeschlossenen Ausbildungsverträgen und Studienanfängern
b) First outline for blog article + c) Key words or phrases
1st key aspect: How duale Ausbildung combines study and work
• Vocational training combines several days or a block of classes at a vocational school with practical, on-the-job training.
• Subjects taught at vocational school include German, English, social studies and knowledge relevant to the chosen vocational training course.
• The intermediate exam covers what you have learned at school as well as how to apply that knowledge on the job.
2nd key aspect: the advantages of this type of training
• Highly skilled/qualified experts are a critical factor of success for the German economy.
• Vocational trainees have very good chances of finding a job.
• Trainees receive a salary and can (partially) support themselves financially.
• The combination of schooling and on-the-job training excellently prepares trainees for their professional careers.
3rd key aspect: post-secondary education young Germans favour
• attaining a university degree (numbers have recently risen)
• Two-thirds of all students leaving school opt for a dual vocational training course (first), however, those numbers are falling.
• reason: The number of students attaining the entrance qualification for higher education is constantly rising.
Can you imagine actually getting paid to go to school? While Australian youngsters have to fork over thousands of dollars in tuition fees, many young Germans are actually on the receiving end, cashing in hundreds of euros a month while still getting an education. Surprised? Well, let me explain.
Every year, tens of thousands of German students who have just finished school begin a specialised vocational training course, during which they not only attend classes but also work in their future jobs. This educational option is unique to Germany and quite different from anything available in Australia. The German system, aptly named duale Ausbildung, combines classes at specialised vocational schools with practical, on-the-job training. Usually, students attend classes on one or two days a week, sometimes even for several weeks en bloc. The subjects taught at vocational schools include the standard fare such as German, English or Social Studies. However, the bulk of the trainees’ classes cover specialised knowledge relevant to their chosen vocational training courses.
And that is where the euros come in: Actual classes only make up about one-third of the students’ time. When they’re not studying, they’re on the job. From day one, the trainees spend about two-thirds of their time actually applying what they’ve learned at school to their chosen field of work. Consequently, both their intermediate and final exams cover the academic subjects they took and the practical knowledge they acquired while working.
Because of this combination, their chances of subsequently finding a job are actually quite good, which explains why so many young Germans opt for this type of post-secondary education. In addition to that, German companies value the practical skills these highly specialised workers have acquired, setting them apart from others who have only studied theory.
In the end, though, the true reason why so many German youngsters choose a vocational training course lies elsewhere. Unlike Australia, the German school system differentiates between various types of qualifications awarded to those who graduate from school. Graduates from the Hauptschule/Mittelschule or Realschule, neither of which provide a university entrance qualification, have to opt for vocational training. Only those studying at the Gymnasium may enter higher education – their Hochschulreife is the equivalent of an A level exam, which more and more young Germans hope to earn. That is why – despite the popularity of vocational training – Germany has seen a rising number of students striving to attain a university degree, while the number of vocational trainees has been constantly dwindling.
The question is whether this development might prove detrimental to the German economy in the long run. After all, the country has built its thriving economy on a dual foundation – with highly specialised, practical training for some and a competitive university system for others, both of which rely on each other in the end.
my choice matters half sleep before you start with partner talk about how the choices you make affect others close to you i.e your family and friends yates was the kind of kid who picked spiders off the floor and threw them outside he was gentle always and he spoke to me like was an adult he played piano and sang like elton john and he told stories that made everyone laugh even though they always ended badly most importantly he was my brother when my parents would go out he and his friends would watch me they played basketball and drank beers in the driveway kept score and shot steady free throws for both sides he didn’t smile often but when he did it was real when started sixth grade he finished high school we had big barbecue planned but he only stayed for minute and then drove off with his friends to do what my parents called “god knows what” he was never home before midnight and he moved out that winter our house calmed down after that for months it had been building with the weight of unasked questions my parents wanted him to at least stay truthful only knew that he barely spoke anymore and got irritated if he spent more than two hours with me things started disappearing my father said it was possible he had left his cordless drill on job site then his miter saw was gone as well my mother lost some money or at least couldn’t remember spending it my father sat on the couch with his head tilted toward the ceiling thinking of places the money could have gone he wondered out loud if my mother had gotten her nails done or made trip to the grocery store or been mugged she fumed back that it doesn’t cost ninety dollars to get her nails done remember sitting in the living room listening to hushed voices snapping from the kitchen yates stopped coming to the house one late night before they changed the locks heard the squeak of hinge and the brush of weather stripping sweep the wood floor knew it was my brother by the creep of his steps he padded lightly heel first toward the kitchen heard drawers roll open and the woolly jingle of junk being moved the drawers closed and the footsteps continued eluding the creaky seams my heart was gong in my half sleep the hollow door of my room swung slowly and noticed change in light and breeze could feel his presence in the doorway though it was too dark to see could envision his greasy brown hair that turned blond some summers and his big sad eyes could almost smell him his smell like the must of cabin and stale menthol cigarettes his steps led to my window and to the acoustic gibson hummingbird that leaned by the sill it was my father’s guitar the one he had taught yates on and that yates had promised to teach me on could picture his thick fingers with the nails bitten down to nubs working the neck of the guitar those same fingers were now reaching to take it away didn’t stop him imagine could have but didn’t and kept the guitar’s disappearance from my parents for months because didn’t want them to be wounded like was and like yates was all told them was that knew he still loved us and that he was hurt as we were hurt what never told them to spare them the agony of strict detail was that when he left the room could feel his presence in the doorway for long while staring at me as slept as if he wanted me to wake up and then heard the gush of broken throat and the soft chirping breath of his tears matt krampitz “half sleep” 2011 cordless drill tool for making holes miter saw electrically powered circular saw to fume back to reply angrily hinge joint on which door swings open weather stripping strip of rubber sealing door against rain and wind to elude to avoid must damp/ mouldy smell cabin small cheap wooden house stale old not fresh gibson hummingbird type of guitar nub small piece gush here sigh choices in work and society texts
Possible choices relevant to teenagers regarding …
• The longer I go to school, the more financial support I will need from my parents.
• If I do my best at school, my parents won’t have to pay for extra tutoring / my family will be proud of me / my friends will possibly envy me / …
• My parents might not approve if I choose the ‘wrong’ friends.
• My friends might turn away from me if I strike up new friendships with people they don’t like / if I betray their confidence / if I am dishonest with them / if I don’t find time or interest to listen to their problems / party too often/too much / if I start smoking / if I drink too much alcohol …
• Hanging out with the ‘right’ people might make me more popular at school.
• If I take care of my young siblings responsibly, my parents will trust me.
• If I help my siblings when they need me, they will look up to me.
• If I don’t follow the rules set by my parents, I might be grounded / be able to go out less / have my pocket money reduced / …
comprehension outline the chronology of events narrated in this short story by using timeline describe the narrator’s feelings about his brother analysis analyse how the narrative perspective influences our view of yates compare the first and last paragraphs and illustrate how the roles in the two brothers’ relationship have reversed examine which of the typical characteristics of short stories are present in this story and explain what effects they produce s4.1 creative task using the timeline created above retell the events presented from different perspective choose yates the mother or the father how do they feel about what happened compare your versions and discuss the differences in class evaluation discuss why the narrator doesn’t stop his brother from taking the guitar language imagine the brothers meet again years later they speculate on what could have gone differently if the family members had made different choices write their conversation using conditional clauses tip use conditional clauses type iii “if you hadn’t left the graduation barbecue after five minutes we could have …” “if dad had asked me about would have…” why aren’t young people more involved in politics before you start think pair share think of ways in which teenagers and young adults can become politically engaged of course many young people are engaged in politics look at the leaders of grassroots movements such as black lives matter the climate justice movement or march for our lives and young people are running for and winning public office in impressive fashion but over and over again the question keeps resurfacing why aren’t more young people involved in politics if we are seriously interested in increasing participation in politics among the generations coming of age in the 21st century we need to alter our approach it’s time to stop castigating young people and instead try to understand and empathize with why disengaging is often their default position for those under the to alter to change to castigate to rebuke/criticise to disengage to stay passive default standard usual texts
a) Timeline of events
• The narrator is a child: his older brother Yates looks after him.
• The narrator starts sixth grade: Yates finishes high school.
• Yates skips his graduation barbecue.
• Family life becomes increasingly difficult. (Yates is hardly at home and never speaks.)
• Yates moves out.
• Tools and money start disappearing from the house.
• One night, Yates comes home and secretly steals his father’s guitar from his brother’s room.
• Eventually, they change the locks.
• The narrator doesn’t tell his parents about the missing guitar until months later.
b) How the narrator feels about his brother
• The narrator looks up to Yates: he describes him as being kind and “gentle” (l. 2), a talented musician
(ll. 2 – 3); Yates makes the narrator and others laugh and he treats him like an adult (ll. 2 – 4)
• The narrator feels strongly connected with Yates: “he was my brother” (l. 4); he recognises him by his steps
(ll. 24 – 25) and can “feel his presence in the doorway”
• The narrator feels compassion for his brother, yet he also feels let down: “I knew he still loved us and that he was hurt as we were hurt.” (ll. 40 – 41)
a) Narrative perspective and its influence on the reader’s perception of Yates
• first person narrator with a limited perspective
• As readers, we are limited by the narrator’s positive and compassionate feelings towards his brother. Even after Yates steals the guitar, the narrator still defends him as being “wounded” (l. 39) and “hurt” (l. 41), describing his “broken throat” and the “soft chirping breath of his tears” (l. 44).
• The narrator gives no explanation for his brother’s change in behaviour, but he mentions his brother’s friends as drinking beer (l. 6) and driving off with him (l. 9), which might suggest that he indirectly blames them for his decline.
• Overall, Yates comes across as a victim of his circumstances. He seems troubled, but authentic
(cf. l. 7).
b) Roles of the brothers in the …
• Yates treats his brother with respect (l. 2), makes him laugh (l. 3) and looks after him when their parents go out (l. 5).
• The narrator doesn’t stop Yates from stealing the guitar (l. 38) or alert his parents (ll. 38 ff).
• He acts protectively towards his family members, trying to spare them from further hurt (ll. 39 – 40 and l. 41).
• He takes on the role usually reserved for an older sibling.
c) Typical characteristics of short stories present in “Half Sleep” and their effect on the reader
• length: The story is very short (only 44 lines in this edition).
→ It can be read in one sitting, or possibly be reread.
• limited number of characters: The story focusses on Yates, his brother (the narrator) and their parents; the characters are not fully developed.
→ The reader empathises with the characters and is able to focus his/her attention on their problems.
• limited subject matter: The story focusses on the development of Yates and how his downturn affects his family members (single, easily contained plot).
→ The lives of the family members are reduced to a single conflict (as if viewed through a magnifying glass), emphasising the rift between the parents and their elder son and the estrangement of the two siblings, suggesting that their lives are dominated by the alienation from each other.
• (partially) in medias res/open end: While the first paragraphs cover a longer period of time, the story ends abruptly, without offering closure; we are left to wonder if Yates will reconcile with his family or not.
→ The reader is left to come up with his/her own solution and is prone to think about the story more intensely than if it had ended either happily or badly.
Possible aspects influencing Yates’ perspective
• his genuine love for his little brother and his pride in his brother’s ability to “throw steady free throws” (l. 6)
• how he used to enjoy making people laugh
• why he didn’t want to stay for his graduation barbecue
• his feelings towards his parents and their growing criticism
• how his resentment towards his family taints his relationship with his brother (“he barely spoke anymore and got irritated if he spent more than two hours with me”, ll. 13 – 14)
• why he needs money and how he feels about stealing from his parents and, eventually, his brother
• why he feels wounded/hurt
Possible aspects influencing the parents’ perspectives
• their disappointment in Yates’ leaving the barbecue
• their disdain for his friends
• their criticism of his lifestyle and their need for him to remain truthful to them
• how they explain the disappearance of the tools and the money and possible suspicions of each other
• what made them change the locks
• how they react to the missing guitar and their younger son’s defence of his elder brother
Possible reasons for the narrator not stopping his brother from stealing the guitar
• He shies away from the confrontation with his brother.
• He feels sorry for his brother and would like to help him but can’t help him in any other way.
• He wants his brother to have something that reminds him of his family.
• He can’t bring himself to worsen his brother’s obvious suffering.
• He still feels a strong bond connecting him to his brother and doesn’t want to disappoint him.
Possible conversation between the two brothers
Narrator: If you hadn’t left the graduation barbecue after five minutes, we could have played basketball together with your friends.
Yates: Well, if Mom and Dad hadn’t kept eyeing my friends like that, we wouldn’t have felt so uncomfortable.
Narrator: But what about afterwards? If you had told Mom and Dad the truth about what you did when you stayed out so late, they wouldn’t have been so suspicious.
Yates: If Dad had asked me just once about what I really wanted to do in my life, maybe then I would have stayed home and had a real conversation with him.
Narrator: Don’t you think that Mom and Dad would have given you money if you had told them that you were broke? Why did you have to steal stuff at night?
Yates: Oh, come on. They despised my friends and me. They would never have given me a cent if they had known that I wasn’t working a regular job.
Narrator: But taking the guitar … What do you think would have happened if you had woken me up?
Yates: I don’t know. I was really upset. If I had been calmer, maybe I would have asked you for help.
Narrator: Well, guess what? I was awake. What would you have done if I had tried to stop you from leaving with Dad’s instrument?
Yates: Don’t ask. I was really desperate. I don’t know what I would have done. Let’s not think about it.Drucken
Ways in which teenagers and young adults can become politically engaged
• join a youth organisation of a political party
• volunteer for an NGO • take part in demonstrations
• organise online petitions
• contact their MPs and lobby for their concerns
• voice their concerns actively on social media and create platforms for other young people
earliest political memory is likely sept and the rise of surveillance state one that instilled in them the idea that we are never safe and should always prepare for the worst young adulthood was marked by two unsuccessful never-ending wars and the entire financial system collapsing all the while american politics became dysfunctional the radicalization of the republican party brought brinkmanship and obstructionism to washington denigrating government and public service and leading to poorly designed public policy why would anyone coming of age aspire to work in this “swamp” and even if one wants to make difference student debt destroys career flexibility nearly percent of americans ages to have outstanding student loans on top of all of this many young people since childhood have experienced the existential weight of whether the earth will remain inhabitable by the time they retire the bleak forecast about climate change alone would justify some nihilism more so than apathy nihilism or disengagement hopelessness plagues young people and overcoming that hopelessness requires showing empathy and making clear that our crises are being shouldered by allies of all ages also we need to finally stop gaslighting young people with tales of previous generations’ tribulations and how they overcame them we also have to teach young people how to fight back “there’s strange myth that has developed about the 1960s that students turned into progressive activists spontaneously,” explains joan mandle executive director of democracy matters non-partisan organization that teaches students to organize for democracy reform “but we all had mentors we were taught how to organize by those who came before.” many people don’t know how to vote or research the issues and are ashamed to ask for help and that’s understandable because it is taboo to admit as much and civic education is hardly robust anymore today one of the most common forms of political engagement on college campuses is through college democrats or college republicans organizations yet more often than not these undergraduate clubs only serve as networking opportunities for like-minded individuals little political action is involved moreover as mandle explains community volunteer work has been favored over political engagement by high schools colleges educational and religious institutions “there are many avenues and organizations for young people to ‘help others.’ but involvement in political issues or elections is if not actively discouraged not promoted by these same institutions as result in building their resumes and looking for what are seen as ‘legitimate’ volunteer activities many young people shy away from politics.” shifting attitudes are no substitute of course for laws that make political participation easier such as strong civic education automatic and same-day voter registration and lowering the voting age but mentoring is big step everyone can take immediately to help end critical barriers to youth participation once and for all adam eichen yes online magazine 2018 comprehension sum up the various reasons for political disengagement among young people given in the text outline the solution that is presented evaluation discuss whether mentoring will result in more youth engagement which other suggestions do you have speaking research one of the organisations mentioned in the text and present your findings to the class → s22 sept the 9/11 terrorist attacks on september 2001 two wars wars led by the us and western countries to ‘combat terrorism’ in iraq and afghanistan financial system collapsing global financial crisis in 2008 brinkmanship pursuing reckless and risky policy obstructionism hindering/ stopping sth to denigrate to criticise unfairly nihilism the attitude that any belief or principle is meaningless to gaslight sb to act as if sb’s problems are not real/ important tribulation problem non-partisan independent civic education politische bildung choices in work and society
a) Reasons for political disengagement among young people given in the text
• Political disengagement is their “default position” (l. 9): it’s the standard for them.
• Young adults grew up in times of turmoil: the rise of the surveillance state, the wars (in Iraq) and the collapse of the financial system shaped their late teenage years.
• The political system in Washington has become increasingly flawed, with the politics of obstructionism leading to a widespread disdain for the political system.
• Many young adults are financially bound by crushing student debt.
• Young people are crushed by hopelessness with regard to the future of our planet.
b) The solution
• Older adults should show empathy and make clear that our crises are being shouldered by allies of all ages.
• Young people should not be tricked into believing that the older generations overcame all over their hardships easily.
• Young adults should be taught how to fight back by mentors (as it was done in the 1960s, when young adults flocked towards political activism).
• Political activism should be seen as a legitimate volunteer activity for high school or college students building their CVs.
Positive effects of mentoring
• Older adults can pass on their knowledge and experience, thereby motivating younger adults and teens to become politically active themselves and helping them to avoid making mistakes.
• Teenagers and young adults can profit from experienced activists’ contacts; thus they can work more effectively from the start without having to build up their own network of contacts over the years.
• When working together, older and younger activists can reach out to a wider range of people by appealing to many generations; this feeling of really making a difference might motivate young activists to devote their time and energy to political engagement.
Negative effects of mentoring
• Young activists might feel patronised and not taken seriously.
• Young people should be allowed to make their own mistakes in order to be able to learn from them.
• Teenagers and young adults might feel stifled by older activists guiding them along if they are unable to emphasise the ideas and issues they perceive as important as a younger generation.
Other suggestions to facilitate youth activism
• Schools, colleges and universities should include (education about) activism and/or political engagement in their curricula.
• Civic education should be strengthened in schools, enabling students to fully understand the political process.
• Colleges, universities and companies should promote the importance of activism and encourage applicants to include it in their CVs.
• MPs could introduce office hours/social media platforms for their younger (or future) constituents.
• Young people should be encouraged to connect online and reach out on a global scale and to make their voices heard.
Black Lives Matter (BLM)
• founded in 2013 in response to the acquittal of a Black man’s murderer (the Trayvon Martin case)
• The organisation is active in the United States, the UK and Canada.
• mission: “to eradicate white supremacy and build local power to intervene in violence inflicted on Black communities by the state and vigilantes”
• means: BLM combats and counters “acts of violence, creating space for Black imagination and innovation” by focusing on transporting a positive image of Black people and their lives, thus facilitating noticeable improvements to the lives of Black individuals.
Further information is provided on the website and via online and offline news outlets.
March for our Lives
• founded in 2018 in response to the mass shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida on 14 February of the same year
• The organisation is active in the United States.
• mission: “to harness power of young people across the country to fight for sensible gun violence prevention policies that save lives” / “senseless gun violence” must be stopped by creating a “safe and compassionate nation for all of us”
• means: organising protests / calling political leaders out for not effectively combatting gun violence / touring the country to help voters register / reaching out to victims’ families / encouraging young people to vote / …
Further information is provided on the website and via online and offline news outlets.
Climate justice movement
• a global network connecting individuals and groups on a transnational basis which is continually evolving
• mission: to promote responses to the challenges of climate change that are scientifically driven and socially just
• means: lobbying local and national political leaders as well as local and internationally operating businesses and companies to create policies which effectively counteract climate change / organising online and offline protests / supporting local grassroots movements / lobbying celebrities (movie stars, singers etc.) to publicly champion their causes / educating the public about scientific responses to climate change / …
Further information is provided on the internet and via offline news outlets.
deutschlands jugend politisch wie nie mediation in recent years the us has seen growing political interest among teenagers and young adults imagine you wanted to tell readers of yes online magazine about how young germans feel by posting comment in the online paper’s comment section use the information provided in the article below to explain how young german voters are changing the political landscape → s25 am abend des mai konnte jeder für einen kurzen moment erahnen was es bedeutet wenn fast millionen menschen ihre stimme erheben der abend der europawahl zeigte junge menschen interessieren sich für die welt um sie herum und sie sind laut die wahlbeteiligung stieg altparteien mussten mit schrecken be obachten wie ihre zustimmungswerte fielen die klimapartei bündnis 90/die grünen triumphierte alles ein verdienst der jungen wähler keine andere partei schnitt in deutschland so gut bei unter 30-jährigen ab wie die grünen schon jetzt wird deshalb in deutschland von einer neuen politisierten generation gesprochen vergleichbar nur mit den jungen wilden der 1968er jahre die in deutschland werte der nachkriegszeit in frage stellten ähnlich wie vor über 50 jahren könnte auch diese klima-generation den althergebrachten politikbetrieb aufmischen neue werte schaffen eine eigene agenda setzen dabei zeigt sich nur was sich schon lange angebahnt hat schon die shell jugendstudie hielt 2015 fest dass im vergleich zu 2002 statt prozent nun bereits 41 prozent der jugendlichen erklärten politisch interessiert zu sein die jungen engagierten haben einen mächtigen verbündeten die sozialen netzwerke für die politikwissenschaftlerin und gründerin des y-politik“-podcasts tanja hille ist gerade der einfluss von social media stars die normalerweise keine politischen inhalte kreieren entscheidend in meiner generation war es noch so dass wir uns informationen aktiv beschaffen mussten sagt die 27-jährige in der politik ist das erstarken der jungen stimmen noch nicht angekommen in den parteien im bundestag finden sich nur wenige abgeordnete jüngerer jahrgänge und auch im umgang mit neuen kräften wie influencern zeigen sich große parteien noch ungelenk die junge cdu-politikerin diana kinnert sagt das konzept partei ist unattraktiv auf hundert verschiedenen ebenen junge menschen sind nicht unpolitischer geworden sie engagieren sich nur anders auch youtuberin diana zur löwen kritisiert vor allem die abwehrhaltung der parteien ich glaube was viele satt haben sind politiker ohne herzblut wir wollen wieder leidenschaft sehen und auch mal politiker die uns auf instagram mitnehmen in ihren alltag lisa hänel deutsche welle website 2019 irish teenagers favour traditional occupations before you start in which jobs do you see yourselves at the age of do quick survey in your class and list your answers according to gender discuss the results irish teenagers are part of worrying global trend of young people ignoring 21st century careers in favour of traditional occupations huge changes to the world of work over the past two decades have made little impact on the career expectations of 15-year-olds according to report from the international think-tank oecd in fact since 2000 there has been an increase in the number of teens who see their dream job within small list of traditional careers such as doctor teacher and lawyer think-tank group of experts texts
Aspects a post should include
• Recently, young voters have forcibly pushed climate change policies by preferring Die Grünen, the German party which traditionally promotes a strong environmental platform.
• This new ‘generation climate’ is reminiscent of the young political activists of the late 1960s, who questioned the norms of post-war Germany and created a new and unprecedented agenda.
• Pollsters have been following a general trend for several years: Young Germans have expressed an increased interest in politics, actively embracing social media networks which provide easy access to information.
• While there are still few young MPs, media-savvy youths are advising the established political parties to cater to their youngest voters by exhibiting a more passionate and personable approach towards politics.
oecd education director andreas schleicher says it shows that too many teenagers were ignoring or were unaware of new types of jobs that are emerging particularly as result of digitalisation he said it was clear that overwhelmingly jobs with origins in the 20th century or earlier were more attractive to young people and that accessible well-paying jobs with future did not seem to capture their imagination among 15-year-old girls in ireland job as an information and communications technology professional ict did not feature among top careers in 2018 53 % of girls and 47 % boys expected to work in one of just popular jobs by the age of up from 38 % and 49 % respectively since 2000 the ‘dream’ occupations most commonly cited by 15-year-old girls were doctor teacher business manager lawyer nurse psychologist designer vet police officer and architect there was much overlap in interest between the genders although the boys list was topped by engineer which did not feature for the girls and also included ict professional sportsperson and motor mechanic but not psychologist designer vet or nurse ireland is one of the countries where the clustering of interest in narrow range of careers is highest with 60 % girls and 49 % of boys expecting to work in one of the 10 most commonly cited jobs however while irish boys have broadened their career interests since 2000 when the figure was 53 % career expectations among girls have become more concentrated with an increase from 55 % in those expecting to work in one of the “top 10” career areas the report found broader range of career aspirations in countries with strong established vocational training such as apprenticeships for teenagers and therefore greater exposure to variety of occupations in germany and switzerland for instance less than 40 % of young people expressed an interest in only 10 jobs the report says the narrowing of job choices is driven by young people from more disadvantaged backgrounds and by those who were weaker performers in the pisa tests in reading mathematics and science however it also points to frequent mismatch between career aspirations and the education and qualifications required to achieve them according to the oecd addressing this challenge requires ensuring effective systems of career guidance combined with close engagement with the working world katherine donnelly irish independent online 2020 comprehension outline the overall findings of the oecd study regarding teenage career aspirations explain how the numbers for ireland differ mediation the article mentions germany as positive example with its “strong established vocational training” prepare short statement referring to the study’s findings for german teenagers by using the podcast “welche berufswünsche haben jugendliche as source of information use your ideas from the abi skills workshop with partner briefly discuss what you already know about vocational training and note down the information provided by the irish independent about germany listen to the podcast twice each time you listen jot down additional facts given in the podcast regarding germany complete your outline by transferring your notes into english paraphrasing when necessary present your findings in class discuss whether you find these results for germany surprising evaluation discuss why young people currently favour traditional jobs imagine you have read this article online write short reply for the comment section detailing the results of your discussion and including the class survey a1 over whelmingly here with strong majority vocational training berufsausbildung exposure here experience/ knowledge of sth choices in work and society
a) The overall findings of the OECD study
• global trend: Young people are ignoring 21st century careers in favour of traditional occupations.
• Since 2000, the number of teens dreaming of a career in a narrow field of long-established professions (doctor, lawyer, teacher) has increased.
• The OECD has criticised the tendency to ignore many new jobs created by digitalisation.
• Additionally, the scope of dream jobs mentioned by the 15-year-olds in question has narrowed.
• Girls are still shying away from technical professions such as engineering or ICT.
• The OECD has found that the narrowing of choices is especially driven by teenagers from less privileged backgrounds, which illustrates the need for effective career guidance.
b) The numbers for Ireland
• Among the OECD countries, Irish teenagers especially tend to choose from a more limited selection of dream jobs (with 60 % of all girls and 49 % of all boys are expecting to work in the ten most popular jobs).
• Among boys, these numbers have somewhat diminished while among girls they have increased since 2000.
a) Information about vocational training
• Students should reflect on the results of the mediation task in Abi skills Mediation.
• Irish independent: In countries with strong, established vocational training programs, such as Germany and Switzerland, teenagers tend to choose from a wider variety of jobs.
• Fewer than 40 % of young German and Swiss people surveyed expressed an interest in the ten traditional jobs.
b) Additional facts given in the podcast
• Deutsche Mädchen favorisieren: Ärztin/Lehrerin/Erzieherin.
• Deutsche Jungen favorisieren: IT Spezialist/
• In den nächsten zehn bis 15 Jahren fallen OECD-weit 39 % der zehn beliebtesten Berufe der Automatisierung zum Opfer, in Deutschland sind dies sogar 45 %.
• Die OECD empfiehlt den Jugendlichen daher, sich gründlich zu informieren und Kontakte in die Berufswelt zu suchen, z. B. über Praktika und auf Jobmessen.
• Da sich die deutschen Teenager aber insgesamt bzgl. ihrer Berufswünsche breiter aufstellen als der OECD-Durchschnitt (s. auch Zeitungsartikel), sind ihre Chancen, einen Job zu finden, insgesamt höher.
c) Notes translated into English
• top three jobs favoured by German girls: doctor, teacher, kindergarten/nursery school teacher
• top three jobs favoured by German boys: IT professional, industrial mechanic, car mechanic
• In the next ten to 15 years 39 % of the top ten jobs favoured by teens will be replaced by automation (overall figures for the OECD countries).
• In Germany 45 % of these jobs will be replaced.
• OECD advises teenagers to actively seek out career guidance by doing internships and visiting job fairs.
• In Germany, teenagers have a better chance of finding a job because they are less likely to choose a job from the narrow scope of professions favoured by teenagers in other OECD countries.
Words/Expressions which need to be paraphrased or explained
• Erzieherin (nursery school teacher/kindergarten teacher)
• Industriemechaniker (industrial mechanic)
• Praktika (internship, practical training)
• Berufsberatung (career guidance)
• Jobmesse (job fairs)
d) Possibly surprising aspects about these results
Students should compare these findings with their class survey and discuss possible deviations (especially regarding the differences between boys and girls and the actual preference of professions listed).
a) Possible reasons why young people might favour traditional jobs
• New technologies/information industry might seem volatile (employees are easily hired, easily fired).
• Fast-paced changes in the information technology makes these jobs seem more demanding because they require greater flexibility and a willingness to constantly retrain or reskill.
• New jobs are generally less well known, requiring teenagers to actively seek out information about them.
• Currently there are fewer (visible) role models working in 21st century jobs than people working in traditional jobs.
• Advice on traditional careers is more readily available from parents/teachers/older friends.
• There is a general reluctance to try something new when you can resort to well-known options where you know what to expect (many students hesitate to leave their comfort zone).
• Parents might not be as supportive of their children aspiring to careers they are not familiar with.
b) Ideas for a comment
• The comment should begin with a short overview of the class survey in direct response to the information given about German teenagers in the article.
• The main points of the class discussion should be summarised.
• It should end by suggesting how young people’s perceptions of 21st century jobs might be changed.
Welche Berufswünsche haben Jugendliche?
Passend zu Texts A task 14
college may not be worth it anymore before you start list the pros and cons of getting university degree recent decades have brought agreement that higher education is if not cure then at least protection against underemployment and the inequality it engenders in 2012 president barack obama called college degree an “economic imperative that every family in america has to be able to afford.” americans strove to rise to that challenge third of them ages to now hold at least bachelor’s degree and many paid heavily for the privilege by last summer americans owed more than $1.3 trillion in student loans more than two and half times what they owed decade earlier young people and their families go into debt because they believe that college will help them in the job market and on average it does but this raises question does higher education itself offer that benefit or are the people who earn bachelor’s degrees already positioned to get higher-paying jobs economists tim bartik and brad hershbein found that for americans born into middle-class families college degree does appear to be wise investment those in this group who received one earned percent more over their careers than those who didn’t but for those born into poverty the results were far less impressive college graduates born poor earned on average only slightly more than did high school graduates born middle class and over time even this small “degree bonus” ebbed away at least for men by middle age male college graduates raised in poverty were earning less than nondegree holders born into the middle class the scholars conclude “individuals from poorer backgrounds may be encountering glass ceiling that even bachelor’s degree does not break.” the authors don’t speculate as to why this is the case but it seems that students from poor backgrounds have less access to very highincome jobs in technology finance and other fields class and race surely play role we appear to be approaching time when even for middle-class students the economic benefit of college degree will begin to dim since 2000 the growth in the wage gap between high school and college graduates has slowed to halt percent of college graduates now earn no more than does the average high school graduate part of the reason is oversupply technology increased the demand for educated workers but that demand has been consistently outpaced by the number of people urged on by everyone from teachers to presidents prepared to meet it no other nation punishes the “uneducated” as harshly as the united states nearly percent of americans without high school diploma live in poverty compared to 5 percent with college degree and we infer that this comes from lack of education but in other wealthy developed countries lack of high school diploma increases the probability of poverty by less than percent what all this suggests is that the college-degree premium may really be no-college-degree penalty it’s not necessarily college that gives people the leverage to build better working life it’s that not having degree decreases whatever leverage they might otherwise have ellen ruppel shell the new york times online 2018 comprehension sum up the implications for different social groups the text mentions with regard to getting college education analysis the article concludes that not having college degree “decreases whatever leverage” people might have to build themselves better life explain this statement referring to the last two paragraphs of the text to engender to cause sth imperative something that is extremely important to outpace to rise faster than leverage advantage advanced texts
• the only path available to many (highly) skilled jobs (doctor, lawyer etc.)
• offers access to better paying jobs
• guarantees financial security
• positions available with a college degree presumably offer more job satisfaction and better working conditions
• college degree often a prerequisite to finding a job abroad
• Even without having to pay tuition fees, a college education is expensive (students need food and housing but have no real income).
• With a rising number of university graduates the competition for employment has become fierce – a degree alone won’t guarantee better chances at finding a job.
• Some subjects have too many applicants – students might have to spend several semesters on a waiting list to be accepted.
• It’s not worth it financially – high school graduates who start working right away by going into vocational training have a head start of several years.
Americans born into middle class families
• A college degree seems to be a wise investment (l. 13).
• Middle-class Americans with a college degree earned 162 percent more over the course of their careers than those who didn’t (ll. 14 – 15).
Americans born poor
• College graduates earned on average only slightly more than did high school graduates born into the middle class (ll. 15 – 16).
• Later in life, this advantage melts away for males: by middle age, these men are earning less than nondegree holders born into the middle class (ll. 18 – 19).
• Even a college degree cannot do away with the limitations placed on Americans born into poor families, as they have less access to high-paying jobs in technology or finance (ll. 20 – 23).
• Scholars assume that in this context class and race play a role (l. 23).
What the statement means
• A college degree will not necessarily guarantee a better job or a higher salary (ll. 36 – 37); it only “might” be beneficial (l. 38).
• Not having a degree means that you do not even have this slight advantage (= leverage), implying that you are doubly disadvantaged when trying to create a better life for yourself.
Reasoning behind this conclusion
1. The situation for graduates has generally worsened in the United States (ll. 24 – 30).
• Over the past 20 years, the financial gain of getting a college degree has dimmed (l. 25), as one quarter of all college graduates earn no more than the average high school graduate.
• This is due to an oversupply of graduates → it means that even middle-class graduates have fewer possibilities to build a better life for themselves (= less leverage).
2. The uneducated are even worse off (ll. 31 – 36).
• 30 percent of all Americans without a high school degree live in poverty.
• This leads to the conclusion that Americans who have a degree are not better off than others because of their degree but because the others are financially punished for not having a degree at all (ll. 36 – 37).
speaking expand your list of pros and cons with the information provided in the article then hold debate on whether high school graduates should be encouraged to pursue college education → s23.2 the time of my life before you start ‘bell jar’ is glass cover used to protect objects or to contain vacuum with partner talk about what you associate with this image especially in the context of young woman in the 1950s this extract is taken from the bell jar novel by sylvia plath the protagonist esther greenwood young college student from massachusetts is spending her summer in new york city in the early 1950s was supposed to be having the time of my life was supposed to be the envy of thousands of other college girls just like me all over america who wanted nothing more than to be tripping about in those same size-seven patent leather shoes i’d bought in bloomingdale’s one lunch hour with black patent leather belt and black patent leather pocketbook to match and when my picture came out in the magazine the twelve of us were working on drinking martinis in skimpy imitation silver-lamé bodice stuck on to big fat cloud of white tulle on some starlight roof in the company of several anonymous young men with all-american bone structures hired or loaned for the occasion everybody would think must be having real whirl look what can happen in this country they’d say girl lives in some out-of-the-way town for nineteen years so poor she can’t afford magazine and then she gets scholarship to college and wins prize here and prize there and ends up steering new york like her own private car only wasn’t steering anything not even myself just bumped from my hotel and back to work like numb trolleybus guess should have been excited the way most of the other girls were but couldn’t get myself to react felt very still and empty the way the eye of the tornado must feel moving dully along in the middle of the surrounding hullabaloo there were twelve of us at the hotel we had all won fashion magazine contest by writing essays and stories and poems and fashion blurbs and as prizes they gave us jobs in new york for month expenses paid and piles and piles of free bonuses like ballet tickets and passes to fashion shows and hair stylings at famous expensive salon and chances to meet successful people in the field of our desire and advice about what to do with our particular complexions still have the make-up kit they gave me fitted out for person with brown eyes and brown hair an oblong of brown mascara with tiny brush and round basin of blue eye-shadow just big enough to dab the tip of your finger in and three lipsticks ranging from red to pink all cased in the same little gilt box with mirror on one side also have white plastic sunglasses case with colored shells and sequins and green plastic starfish sewed onto it realized we kept piling these presents because it was as good as free advertising for the firms involved but couldn’t be cynical got such kick out of all those free gifts showering on to us for long time afterward hid them away but later when was all right again brought them out and still have them around the house use the lipsticks now and then and last week cut the plastic starfish off the sunglasses case for the baby to play with patent leather shiny smooth leather bloomingdale’s luxury department store pocketbook handbag skimpy short covering only little of the body silver-lamé bodice upper part of woman’s dress made of silver fabric tulle type of very light cloth to have whirl to be very excited numb unable to think or feel hullabaloo uproar noise complexion skin tone oblong small box gilt shiny choices in work and society
Additional pros from the article
• Higher education is a protection against underemployment and the inequality it creates (ll. 1 – 2).
• Middle-class Americans with a degree generally make more money than those without a degree (ll. 13 – 15).
Additional cons from the article
• A college degree is not as beneficial for Americans born poor (ll. 15 – 17).
• The evidence suggests that a person’s class is more influential on their pay than their college degree
(ll. 21 – 23), as those from a poorer background have less access to high-paying jobs.
• An oversupply of graduates has diminished the pay gap between those with a degree and those without one
(ll. 27 – 30).
General associations with a bell jar
• offers a protective environment
• is like an invisible barrier between the outside and the inside (world)
• seals what’s inside off from the outside world
• Contents are put on display.
• seems fragile (glass); if it shatters, its contents might be damaged beyond repair
• No fresh air reaches what’s inside.
In the context of a young woman in the 1950s
• Women were objectified – they were supposed to be beautiful yet unreachable (chaste).
• Young women were strictly protected and kept apart (from the opposite sex, from ‘unwomanly’ occupations or activities).
• Living under a bell jar, young women could see what was possible but were forbidden access to these possibilities (to the freedoms men enjoyed, to certain professions etc.).
• Young women had to be careful about their reputations; if they were shattered, they were considered ‘fallen women’.
so there were twelve of us at the hotel in the same wing on the same floor in single rooms one after the other and it reminded me of my dormitory at college it wasn’t proper hotel mean hotel where there are both men and women mixed about here and there on the same floor this hotel the amazon was for women only and they were mostly girls my age with wealthy parents who wanted to be sure their daughters would be living where men couldn’t get at them and deceive them and they were all going to posh secretarial schools like katy gibbs where they had to wear hats and stockings and gloves to class or they had just graduated from places like katy gibbs and were secretaries to executives and simply hanging around in new york waiting to get married to some career man or other these girls looked awfully bored to me saw them on the sunroof yawning and painting their nails and trying to keep their bermuda tans and they seemed bored as hell talked with one of them and she was bored with yachts and bored with flying around in airplanes and bored with skiing in switzerland at christmas and bored with the men in brazil girls like that make me sick i’m so jealous can’t speak nineteen years and hadn’t been out of new england except for this trip to new york it was my first big chance but there was sitting back and letting it run through my fingers like so much water from sylvia plath the bell jar 1963 comprehension briefly sum up what we learn about esther greenwood analysis describe the choices open to esther and the other young women and examine the role males play in their lives esther appears alienated by her surroundings use chart like this to analyse to what extent this feeling is mirrored by her reaction to the people she meets and the places she goes alienation relating to esther’s reactions and what they show about her personality the people she meets the places she goes explain what this sense of alienation shows about her personality tip pay special attention to the language used in this passage sentence structure long vs short sentences repetitions and imagery such as metaphors and simile analysis esther feels as if she were letting opportunities run through her fingers “like so much water” explain the meaning of the final sentence and the significance of the novel’s title in the context of what you have learned about the protagonist s7 evaluation by comparing your situation to esther greenwood’s discuss how young people may feel stifled by either having too many options or not having any choices at all regarding their future lives katy gibbs private school that prepared young women for job advanced texts
• Esther is a nineteen-year-old college student from a small town in New England.
• She comes from a poor background and has been awarded a scholarship for college.
• Esther has won a fashion magazine contest and as a prize she has been given a job at the magazine in New York for a month.
• While in New York, she lives in a hotel for women only (the Amazon).
• Her days are filled with shopping, photo shoots, trips to the ballet, to fashion shows and expensive salons.
• Overall, she feels uncomfortable in her new surroundings.
a) The choices open to Esther and the other young women
• Esther can go to college (like many other girls, l. 2).
• They can learn about how to appear their best (ll. 25 – 26).
• Some of the young women at the hotel are going to secretarial school (ll. 45 – 49). • Others are already working as secretaries (ll. 47– 48), “waiting to get married to some career man or other” (ll. 48– 49).
• The rich girls lead jet-set lives (ll. 50 – 54).
→ conclusion: While the young women have several options open to them, their existence seems to be ruled by outward appearances (how to present themselves favourably, how to be in the vicinity of potential husbands).
The roles men play in their lives
• act as accessories (“anonymous young men with all-American bone structures”, ll. 8–9), chosen for their appearances only
• employers to some of the young women (“executives”, ll. 47–48)
• viewed as potential husbands (ll. 48–49)
• seen as boring diversions (“the men in Brazil”, l. 54)
→ conclusion: In this passage, the men seem flat and lifeless, as if part of a stage setting.
The meaning of the quote
• Repeatedly throughout the passage, Esther remarks on her inability to actively take part in the opportunities offered to her while in New York: she “wasn’t steering anything” but just “bumped” back and forth between her job and the hotel (l. 15), not being able to get herself to react (l. 17).
• The quote is a metaphor for the many opportunities (her “first big chance”, l. 56) slipping by without Esther being able to grasp them, like she wouldn’t be able to hold on to water with her bare hands.
In the context of the novel’s title
• It appears as if Esther is caught in the bell jar herself; while she is able to see her surroundings, she remains eerily apart and distanced.
• New York City seems to evolve around displays and appearances, a sense of artificiality pervades.
• Both the young women at the Amazon as well as Esther herself seem to live under glass bubble, oddly removed from the darker sides of big city life.
Feeling stifled by too many options
• Too many choices may seem overwhelming and make it hard to choose the best option for yourself.
• It might be hard to settle on one path (and not think about the ‘what if’s’ of choosing something else).
• Those who have everything might grow accustomed to taking things for granted, possibly making less use of their chances than someone with fewer options.
Feeling stifled by too few options
• If you feel as if your options are extremely limited, you might give up altogether and resign.
• Feeling extremely restricted might lead to a young person breaking out and rebelling against those limitations.
Aufgabe 11 im Diff pool bietet für schwächere S Leitfragen für die Bearbeitung von Teilaufgabe a) an.
Für leistungsstärkere S stehen in Aufgabe 12 zwei zusätzliche schriftliche Aufgabenstellungen zur Verfügung.
critical thinking critical thinking is skill that is not only sought-after by employers but is also extremely important for citizens in democracy however it’s more than just the ability to think logically critical thinking means that you do not take information ideas or arguments for granted but question and evaluate them so that you can make reliable judgements brainstorming which of the following do you need for critical thinking analysis emotions evidence bias reasoning negativity observation criticism open-mindedness reflection rank the ones you need according to their importance afterwards compare your ranking in class visuals speculate on what the following picture shows and when and where it was taken how did you proceed in answering these questions did you both come up with the same conclusion s27.1 reflect on what this experiment might tell you about your perception of reality awareness think about recent conversation or message in which someone passed on piece of information or news then answer the following questions who told you do you trust this person to know what they are talking about what did they pass on did they pass on facts or opinions did they give you the whole picture where did you hear it did other people have chance to answer or to give different account when did they pass it on was the timing important why did they pass it on did they have anything to gain by passing it on were they trying to harm someone by doing so did you check what they had said afterwards to what extent do you think that was necessary in which situations is the ability to think critically most important share your thoughts with partner speaking today companies rate critical thinking as one of the top skills that potential employees need therefore they sometimes test candidates in interviews and ask them questions to test their ability to think critically the answer is not important it’s more about the questions they ask and the process they use to find an answer if you stacked 50p pieces on top of each other how many would you need to reach the top of big ben how many piano tuners are there in new york how would you go about answering these questions what kind of questions would you need to ask to be able to come to an answer can you come up with additional questions of this kind together with your partner act out job interview in which future employee is tested on his ability to think critically ask each other the aforementioned questions and change roles afterwards s24 choices in work and society 21st century skills
a) Skills need for critical thinking
open-mindedness, observation, evidence, analysis, reasoning, reflection
b) Justifying your ranking
• To me, … ranks first because …
• In my opinion, critical thinking primarily relies on …
• I am convinced that a major foundation for critical thinking is …
• To my mind, … ranks first whereas … and … come in second and third.
• two people watching a solar eclipse/a plane (pulling a banner)/a rainbow appearing
• firefighters rescuing someone from a burning house
• One man is disinterested (possible reasons: he can’t understand the hype about the solar eclipse, he has other things on his mind; he is watching another person off to his right who is much more interesting etc.).
• While the man on the right has been blinded by the glaring light, the woman next to him is simply enjoying the sunshine.
b) What this might tell us about our perception
• We all notice different aspects of reality.
• We all interpret what we see differently.
• We assess what we see in different ways.
• This might be based on our personal experiences, our mood, our cognitive abilities, our ability to interpret facial expressions, body language etc.
“The new girl in our class texted me yesterday. She had heard that my boyfriend was about to ditch me because he had met someone new. She felt so sorry! Others had seen him around town with a different girl but nobody had dared to tell me about what they had seen. Nobody had approached my boyfriend either. After I had read her message, I checked back with my boyfriend to find out if it was true.”
1. I haven’t known the girl who texted me for a long time. I’m not sure I can trust her, but she seems really friendly. Why should she lie?
2. She passed on what she had heard from somebody else. She hadn’t seen it with her own eyes. Nobody knows which girl was with my boyfriend.
3. The information was passed on, probably only by text messages. None of the people involved has been able to respond.
4. She passed the message on yesterday. My boyfriend and I had been talking about planning a camping trip for next weekend in her presence.
5. Maybe she wanted to make herself interesting. She could have wanted me to think badly about my boyfriend’s character. Maybe she thinks that I will turn to her for consolation. Or worse: maybe she thinks she can hook up with my boyfriend.
6. I checked with my boyfriend afterwards.
b) When it is important to think critically
in situations …
• that can be interpreted in several ways
• that might lead to (severe) consequences for those involved
• in which the sources of information are not reliable/not known
• in which the motives of those involved are not fully obvious
• in which several outcomes are possible
• in which not all of the facts are known
a) How I would go about answering these problems
I would …
• ask if I could stack other things in between or if the stack should be made up of 50p pieces only.
• find out how thick a 50p piece is and then check how high Big Ben is.
• calculate the number of pieces needed by dividing the height of Big Ben by the thickness of a 50p piece
• find out which percentage of the population plays the piano in the US and how many people live in NY.
• calculate how many pianos there are in New York and research how often you need to tune a piano.
• calculate how many NY pianos need to be tuned per year and research how long it takes to tune one.
• calculate how many pianos a piano tuner can tune per year (assuming he takes holidays).
• calculate how many tuners are needed to tune the New York pianos that need to be tuned in one year.
b) Act out a job interview
succeeding in the world of work not simply overtime work before you start what do you know about the term ‘work-life balance’ share your ideas in class one of china’s richest men has been criticized for endorsing the controversial culture of 12-hour workdays in the country’s red-hot tech industry saying employees who worked longer hours will get the “rewards of hard work.” jack ma founder of e-commerce giant alibaba has spoken out on social media in support of the chinese work practice known as “996” the number refers to working from 9 am to 9 pm six days week and is said to be common among the country’s big technology companies and start-ups “if we find things we like is not problem,” ma said in blog post on chinese social media site weibo “if you don’t like your work every minute is torture,” he added ma’s comments prompted criticism from chinese social media users “did you ever think about the elderly at home who need care or the children who need company?” wrote weibo user with the online moniker stupidcan123 in response to ma’s post “if all enterprises enforce schedule no one will have children because of lack of time” they added chinese state media also slammed those companies that make staff put in long hours at the office without referencing ma’s post directly “advocating hard work and commitment does not mean forcing overtime,” wrote state-run newspaper people’s daily in commentary published sunday “the mandatory enforcement of overtime culture not only reflects the arrogance of business managers but also is unfair and impractical.” ma said that he did not intend to defend the practice of working long hours but wanted to “pay tribute” to employees who did “the real is not simply overtime work,” he said adding that everyone has the right to choose their own lifestyle but those who work shorter hours “won’t taste the happiness and rewards of hard work.” ma said he had never regretted working 12-hour days “i personally think that is huge blessing,” he said “how do you achieve the success you want without paying extra effort and time?” ma added that any prospective employees of alibaba one of the world’s biggest tech companies should be prepared to work hours day if they want to succeed “or why bother joining we don’t lack those who work eight hours comfortably,” he said other high-profile figures in china’s tech industry have reportedly defended long working hours in the technology industry richard liu founder of alibaba rival jd.com reportedly criticized employees at the company who did not work hard enough as “slackers.” long workdays in the high tech sector are not unique to china tesla co-founder elon musk has previously said he worked up to hours per week when the electric vehicle maker struggled with production delays “there are way easier places to work but nobody ever changed the world on hours week,” he posted on social media site twitter in november last year serenitie wang and daniel shane cnn 2019 to endorse to praise to promote red-hot here booming hugely successful to slam to criticise strongly to advocate see to endorse mandatory as must not to lack keinen mangel haben an slacker lazy person unique here only known expected jack ma texts
Possible associations with ‘work’
• what you do for a living/by necessity, not by choice
• done for money, not for pleasure
• Work can make you sick (if you’re over-worked or you work with toxic substances).
• For some people, their work is their calling.
• a personal fulfilment
• Work can offer you the opportunity to make a difference/leave your mark.
• gives your life a purpose
Possible associations with ‘life’
• live your life to the fullest
• can be wasted
• Make the best of it – you only live once.
• is governed by many factors you can’t influence
• is what you make of it
• private life/family life/public life
Possible associations with ‘balance’
• equal weight or power
• a give and take
• feeling balanced = feeling good/healthy/having a clear conscience
• the money in your bank account
• The scales can be tipped.
young people are going to save us all from office life for many americans work has become an obsession and long hours and endless striving something to aspire to it has caused burnout unhappiness and gender inequity as people struggle to find time for children or passions or pets or any sort of life besides what they do for paycheck but increasingly younger workers are pushing back more of them expect and demand flexibility paid leave for new baby say and generous vacation time along with daily things like the ability to work remotely come in late or leave early or make time for exercise or meditation the rest of their lives happens on their phones not tied to certain place or time why should work be any different today’s young workers have been called lazy and entitled could they instead be among the first to understand the proper role of work in life and end up remaking work for everyone else it’s still rare for companies to operate this way and the obstacles are bigger than any one company’s h.r policies some older employees may think new hires should suffer the way they did and employers benefit from having always-on workers also it’s luxury to be able to demand flexibility in the first place those who can tend to have college degrees and white-collar careers and can afford to take pay cut in exchange or be highly selective about their jobs that’s kind of freedom that people in vast sectors of the economy don’t have and often it’s given to highly regarded employees on one-off basis but not to everyone at firm still there are signs that things could change for more workers some large and influential companies including walmart and apple have recently begun talking about the need to shift from prioritizing shareholders above all else to taking care of their employees too and as more millennials become bosses and more job seekers demand saner way to work companies will have no choice “they have proven the model that you don’t need to be in the office to to be effective,” said ana recio the executive vice president of global recruiting at salesforce the tech company “this generation is single-handedly paving the way for the entire work force to do their jobs remotely and flexibly.” claire cain miller and sanam yar the new york times 2019 comprehension state what the term “996” means according to the first text sum up the criticism regarding this type of work ethic use information from both texts entrepreneurs are still advocating long working hours outline their reasoning as given in the first text explain what is meant by the phrase “younger workers are pushing back” analysis examine how the authors of the second text arrive at the conclusion that “young people are going to save us all from office life” consider the arguments presented and the overall tone of this text → s10 speaking discuss whether you share the optimistic outlook presented in the second text evaluation think pair share discuss whether you would be willing to work under the circumstances presented in the first text imagine you have been asked to represent the employees at new tesla factory in germany write an e-mail to mr musk clearly stating your attitude towards the long working hours he has championed to aspire to to hope for to work for paid leave paid time off entitled to believe you have the right to sth h.r human resources personalwesen new hire person newly hired by company always-on working endless hours shareholders aktionäre millennials people born in the 80s and 90s sane here healthy to pave the way den weg ebnen elon musk choices in work and society
a) What the term “996” means
• refers to the controversial culture of 12-hour workdays common to China’s tech industry
• It involves working from 9 am to 9 pm six days per week.
b) Criticism regarding this type of work ethic
• Working 996 will leave no time to care for the elderly or for your children (text 1, ll. 12 – 14) or for passions or pets or “any sort of life besides what [you] do for a paycheck” (text 2, ll. 3 – 4).
• worst-case scenario: If every company enforces 996, “no one will have children” (text 1, ll. 16 – 18).
• Mandatory enforcement of 996 is “unfair and impractical” (text 1, ll. 23 – 25).
• The Chinese state media have clarified that calling for hard work and commitment is not the same as promoting overtime (text 1, ll. 21 – 22).
• Work has become an “obsession” with long hours and “endless striving [as] something to aspire to” (text 2, ll. 1 – 2).
• It causes burnout, unhappiness and gender inequity (text 2, ll. 2 – 3).
c) How entrepreneurs advocate long working hours
• According to Jack Ma, long workdays are not a problem if you enjoy what you do.
• While not wanting to promote long hours in general, Ma emphasises that he wishes to applaud those who do work longer (ll. 26 – 27), underlining that their work ethic will let them reap the benefits of their hard work (ll. 2 – 3 and l. 29).
• He believes achieving success is only possible by “paying extra effort and time” (ll. 31 – 32).
• Otherwise, joining his company, Alibaba, would make little sense (ll. 34 – 35).
• People putting in less time have also been criticised as “slackers” (by tech magnate Richard Liu, l. 39).
• Elon Musk of Tesla concludes that “nobody ever changed the world on 40 hours a week” (l. 43).
d) The meaning of “younger workers are pushing back”
• Young employees expect more flexibility at their workplace: They are asking for parental leave/ generous vacation time/the option to work remotely/variable working hours/time for exercise or meditation (ll. 5 – 8).
• The article poses the question whether these workers are actually “the first to understand the proper role of work in life” (ll. 10 – 11).
Why young people are going to save us all from office life: line of argumentation
• starting point/the current situation: Endless working hours have a negative impact on people’s health, happiness, and private lives (1st paragraph).
• the goal/what makes young workers different: They are not willing to accept these restrictions anymore and are pushing for a more flexible working environment (2nd paragraph).
• the obstacles in general/the resistance this approach faces: Young workers are possibly the first to understand the proper role of work in life even if older colleagues and HR departments are reluctant to concede (3rd paragraph).
• the specific limitations/why flexibility is still reserved for a select few: Only white-collar workers with a college degree can usually (afford to) make demands on their employers (4th paragraph).
• the outlook/why companies are rethinking their HR policies: The influence of shareholders is decreasing as more young people take over positions in management and younger workers have proven the efficacy of a more flexible workplace (5th paragraph).
Overall tone of the text
• The text is optimistic (especially in the 2nd and 5th paragraph) by making a strong case for the young workers’ demands.
• The authors are realistic by pointing out possible impediments and mentioning the reservations against a deregulation of traditional workplace requirements.
• The line of argumentation is very persuasive: while the article acknowledges that young workers still face resistance when asking for more job flexibility, this view is counterbalanced by several positive examples of change, with the text ending on a promising note.
• On the whole, young workers are portrayed in a very positive way.
Reasons for sharing a positive outlook
• During the Corona pandemic, many companies realised that their employees working remotely did not reduce their efficacy.
• Many companies are extensively investing in modern technologies to facilitate communication.
• Information technology is developing at a rapid pace which means we can expect more innovations in the near future.
Reasons for a more pessimistic outlook
• There are many jobs that cannot be done remotely.
• Cooperation between different individuals requires certain core times when all employees need to be on the job.
• Not everyone has enough space to work from home.
• Working from home on a regular basis might lead to social isolation.
• Communication is at its most effective when people actually meet face to face.
• Working from home may blur the lines between work and (private) life, making it harder for people to rest their minds and effectively increasing working hours.
a) Possible opinions in a discussion
• I might be willing to work that much for a short period of time – especially when starting a new job.
• I understand that if you want to be highly successful, you need to put in the extra effort.
• I couldn’t imagine spending that much time at work –
I would miss my family and friends.
• I would never put my job before my health.
• What’s the use in working long hours and making lots of money if you don’t have time to spend it?
b) Criteria for an e-mail to Elon Musk
• The text should include an appropriate greeting and ending.
• The main body should begin by stating the writer’s opinion on Mr Musk’s attitude towards long working hours.
• It should then go on to outline the reasons for the writer’s view.
• The arguments should be illustrated with appropriate examples.
• In a few concluding sentences, the writer should summarise his/her opinion and give an outlook on further developments or possible solutions.
• The register should be neutral/formal.
Aufgabe 13 im Diff pool bietet für leistungsstärkere S weitere Sprechanlässe zur Erörterung der Frage nach eigenverantwortlichem Arbeiten zuhause. Die Erfahrungen mit Homeoffice während des Corona- Lockdowns können in die Diskussion mit einfließen.Drucken
am the future of work speaking what impression of the future of work do these photos convey brainstorming ‘i am the future of work’ is the name of campaign launched by the organisation for economic cooperation and development oecd collect ideas about what issues this campaign could be about research using ‘the future of work’ as search word research current campaigns launched by the government ngos or the media etc covering this topic present your findings to the class get together in groups each group chooses one campaign to explore for your presentation choose poster image or logo used in the campaign to illustrate its aims name the addressees individuals or institutions students or professionals etc briefly outline the goals and the services and resources offered explain what has this campaign taught your group about the future of work speaking discuss the differences between the campaigns viewing before viewing guess which of these jobs for human beings can be replaced by robots or software in the next ten years give reasons and compare your results bookkeeper buchhalter call-centre worker cook designer doctor explorer inventor nurse truck driver warehouse worker watch part of ted talk “why jobs of the future won’t feel like work” by david lee and take notes on these aspects examples of jobs which robots or software will be able to do how many people’s jobs may be lost to robots and software in the next ten years which ability levels of working society will be affected then watch part and explain which jobs or processes lee recommends giving to robots and which chances he sees for future human job satisfaction discuss the impact ai will have on your own future are you optimistic or pessimistic about chances in your fields of interest 1‒2 texts
• Photo 1 (left): Future workplaces will be shaped by digitalisation, connectivity, networks, information technology; workers will need to be highly skilled to be able to handle new technologies and use them to their advantage.
• Photo 2 (middle): Future workers will face competition from machines/robots/artificial intelligence; competition for jobs will become fiercer.
• Photo 3 (right): Many manual jobs will be replaced by artificial intelligence and/or robots (not only on assembly lines but also in the service industry); labour-intensive work – such as caring for the elderly – might be taken over by (cheaper) robots in the future.
Possible aspects of the OECD campaign
• interviews with different people about their personal outlook
• how the future will shape the world of work and what part individuals will play (are they actively or passively involved?)
• advice on how best to prepare for future changes in the world of work
• information about 21st century jobs focussing on digitalisation (which jobs there are, how to train for them, tests to see if you are suited to these jobs)
• the role the OECD can play in shaping the future of work
Why we found a campaign convincing
• It appealed to us as young people.
• It covered a multitude of aspects about the topic.
• It came across as fact-based and serious.
• The information was presented in a creative way.
• We like the different types of sources and the authentic contributions by real people doing real jobs.
a) Jobs which will possibly be replaced
• bookkeeper (scanning receipts and balancing the books can be done by scanners and software)
• call-centre worker (call-centre workers are already being replaced by computers; standard requests are often processed by machines; callers only have to press the number buttons on their phone when prompted; only individual concerns are handled by people – callers are then often kept on hold for a considerable amount of time)
• cook (for standard dishes; there are already kitchen gadgets that cook meals by following online recipes, humans only need to add the ingredients, which could eventually be done by robots as well; problem: seasoning food to taste)
• doctor (standard complaints might be diagnosed by software; operations could be performed by robots; this could set time free for human doctors to have more face-to-face interaction with their patients and focus on their psychological needs)
• nurse (partially; shots could be given by robots; robots could also take care of minor injuries like scrapes, cuts or minor burns)
• truck driver (self-driving cars are already a reality; the advantage of driverless trucks would be shorter delivery times, as no breaks need to be observed)
• warehouse worker (many jobs related to logistics can be taken over by machines: sorting, storing, taking stock etc.)
Jobs less likely to be replaced
• designer (innovation and creativity still seem to be a human prerogative)
• explorer (exploring unknown areas requires a multitude of skills and mental flexibility as well as physical strength/agility; exploring could be supported by artificial intelligence, but not replaced by it)
• inventor (see the reasoning for designer above; inventors need to rethink their ideas and often work by trial and error; it seems unlikely that software can come up with objects or processes that have not been thought of (and therefore programmed) before)
• doctors and nurses (whenever personal interaction on an emotional level is involved)
• cook (whenever seasoning to taste or creating new recipes are involved)
b) Notes on part 1 of the TED talk by David Lee
Jobs that robots or software will replace
drivers, cooks, doctors, stockbrokers, tech analysts, bookkeepers, call-centre workers, clerks
How many people’s jobs will be lost
25 million jobs will be lost (three times more than in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis)
Which ability levels of working society will be affected
all levels of society: blue-collar workers (such as drivers), whitecollar workers (office workers), really ‘smart’ people like stock brokers and tech analysts
c) Lee’s recommendation
Jobs or processes Lee recommends giving to robots
• any job with a narrow job definition; standardised procedures requiring single tasks
• any job we dislike (usually the boring, repetitive tasks)
Chances he sees for future human job satisfaction
• we need to change the nature of work and create human-centred jobs
• jobs need to be less centred on tasks and more focused on skills
• work needs to be more meaningful
• people need to become creators/inventors
• we need to bring more humanity into our working lives (“dreams separate us from robots” / example: people need to bring in their “Saturday selves” to work on a Wednesday)
d) The impact AI will have on my future
individual answers, such as …
• Job descriptions will probably change more quickly in the near future (I will need to adapt / I will have to accept that life-long learning will become more important).
• A more traditional job I am interested in might disappear or change significantly (I will have to rethink my future plans).
• I might have to get used to the idea of working side by side with machines.
• If I specialise in AI, my job prospects might improve significantly.
• After watching David Lee’s talk, I would like to work in the same field (creating new approaches to a traditional workplace environment; motivating companies to evaluate their job descriptions).
• I think Mr Lee is too optimistic – the future looks bleak and I think it will be hard for me to find a job when I finish school/university.
• I think we have to accept the fact that fewer workers will be needed in the future – governments will have to rethink their welfare schemes.
• Not all jobs can be reinvented; in the end, it will be white-collar workers who might be able to adapt; blue- collar workers will be harder off (this means that I will definitely be looking for a white-collar job).
“Why jobs of the future won’t feel like work” by David Lee
Passend zu Texts B task 10
“Why jobs of the future won’t feel like work” by David Lee
Passend zu Texts B task 10
women in the workforce before you start think pair share what do you think are the biggest challenges women face in the context of their working lives use your ideas to create mind map analysis in groups analyse the statistics by considering the following aspects work on one chart per group or s26 state the topic explain what the chart is about in your own words describe the figures focus on the most striking aspects increase/decrease differences in absolute numbers discrepancies interpret what conclusions can you draw share results by forming new groups abcd add new aspects to your mind maps evaluation comment on one of the following statements include the ideas from your mind map s14.2 “if you exclude of the talent pool it’s no wonder you find yourself in war for talent.” theresa whitmarsh executive director of the washington state investment board 2016 “when women do better economies do better.” christine lagarde managing director of the international monetary fund 2013 gender equality time needed to close the following global gender gaps based on current trends 99.5 years overall gender gap economic poitica educationa 257.0 years 94.5 years 12.0 years world economic forum 2020 paid maternity leave total weeks of paid parental leave available to mothers in oecd countries oecd 2019 estonia slovak rep finland czech republic latvia norway korea austria germany japan sweden slovenia canada poland italy greece france united kingdom chile ireland australia new zealand netherlands turkey israel switzerland mexico united states the gender pay gap difference in full-time earnings between men and women in selected oecd nations as of the earnings for men 2017 or latest available year oecd 2019 south korea japan chie canada united states united kingdom germany austraia spain france itay greece 34.6 24.5 21.1 18.2 18.2 16.5 15.5 14.3 11.5 female employment vs public spending on family beneﬁts data from oecd world bank gapminder hyde 2016 and un 2019 on the our world in data website 2019 turkey italy spain poland slovakia france finland austria germany estonia new zealand iceland australia united kingdom japan latvia united states canada mexico israel asia europe north america oceania female 15+ population with job south america family beneﬁts of gdp in choices in work and society
The biggest challenges women face
• Women need to balance their careers and their families (not every job offers part-time work / women who take parental leave may be overlooked for promotions / they need more time off from their jobs to care for their children when they are sick).
• Women need to combat sexist stereotypes (about females being unfit for certain kinds of jobs / about women not being able to make tough decisions or being too soft / about women getting promoted for their looks, not their abilities).
• Women are more often judged by their appearances than men are (comments about their hairstyles or outfits are still considered to be acceptable in a professional environment by many people).
• Jobs traditionally chosen by women are not as highly paid as jobs traditionally chosen by men (e.g. caregivers, service industry workers vs. engineers or managers) making it more difficult for women to support a family with a single salary.
Both comments should include the following aspects:
• an introduction explaining the quote in the writer’s own words
• the main body of the text beginning with the writer’s opinion (agreement or disagreement)
• offering sufficient support for the writer’s opinion by giving arguments and examples (beginning with the weakest and ending with the strongest argument); each argument should be dealt with in a separate paragraph
• the conclusion summing up the writer’s opinion and giving an outlook on further developments or possible solutions
1. Theresa J. Whitmarsh
• Rephrasing the statement: Theresa Whitmarsh says that half of the population – the female half – is left behind. Women might either be discouraged to pursue a career or be intentionally overlooked for promotions. Naturally, this leads to a severe shortage of talent, which makes it harder for economies to thrive and companies to recruit suitable employees.
• The writer gives his/her opinion and chooses one of the following sides:
Arguments in favour of Theresa Whitmarsh
• With little flexibility available in higher level management positions, women needing to combine work and family are discouraged from pursuing a career.
• This is true in many third world countries, where girls are often given a rudimentary education (e.g. due to religious reasons or a strong adherence to very conservative gender roles).
• Countries with very traditional gender roles tend to lag behind developed nations with regard to their technological innovation and economic strength (the exception being countries whose strength mainly derives from natural resources such as the Gulf region).
Arguments against Theresa Whitmarsh
• Women are not deliberately excluded from the talent pool in developed countries, they often willingly let their male colleagues press ahead.
• Women often underestimate their own talents and shy away from applying for high-level positions.
• In recent years, many rules and regulations have allowed women equal access to the job market (e.g. by requiring companies to hire a certain quota of women for mid- and high-level management positions); at least in developed countries, Ms Whitmarsh’s statement no longer holds true.
• Conclusion (outlook, solutions): Depending on the writer’s opinion, he/she can either ask for the government to intervene more strongly in hiring policies by enforcing gender quotas or express his/ her hope that companies will adjust their policies without outside influence. OR: He/She can encourage women to take more advantage of the opportunities that are already available to them and exhibit more self-confidence.
2. Christine Lagarde
• Rephrasing the statement: Christine Lagarde implies that there is a correlation between the wellbeing of women and a country’s economic strength. This might refer to their private, public or working lives.
• The writer gives his/her opinion and chooses one of the following sides:
Arguments in favour of Christine Lagarde
• Women are the backbone of the family and families are the backbone of society (if women feel empowered, they are better able to support their children and their partners).
• If women are able to earn money, their overall family situation will improve (especially in developing countries); this will make it possible for their children to get a better education and their partners to work fewer hours and devote more time to the family.
• Strong, empowered women are role models for young girls, encouraging them to pursue an education and join the workforce; these positive role models will be passed on throughout the generations.
Arguments against Christine Lagarde
• While the well-being of women surely needs to be factored into a country’s development, economies are too complex to be reduced to gender issues.
• A singular view on the role of women might lead us to forget that young boys and men need empowerment as well (especially in developing countries).
• Conclusion (outlook, solutions): Depending on the writer’s opinion, he/she can either ask for the government to intervene more strongly in promoting gender equality and improving the situation of women in their private, public and working lives. OR: He/She can propose general programmes to empower those in need, whether they be male or female.Drucken
Aufgabe 15 im Diff pool bietet einen Vorschlag für eine panel discussion. Die S arbeiten zu zweit und überlegen zunächst Pro- und Kontraargumente zum Thema Betreuung von Kleinkindern außer Haus. Sie verwenden ihre Liste und diskutieren die Frage in einer panel discussion.Drucken
the challenge of being in the new contract workforce in 2018 roughly percent of all jobs in the united states were held by contract workers contract workers are employees who are hired to do specific job in exchange for fixed amount of money usually contracts are limited to definite period of time contract workers are not considered to be permanent employees more recently the term gig economy has been used to describe labour market characterised by short-term contracts or freelance work this includes wide variety of temporary jobs from highly skilled work in the it sector to driving and delivering usually companies recruit workers via online platforms brainstorming collect the pros and cons of being contract or gig worker comprehension using the information provided in the graph describe how gig workers evaluate their situation listening listen to the report on the challenges of being contract worker and make notes add to your list of pros and cons outline the solutions proposed by politicians and unionists research find out about the situation of contract workers in germany freiberufliche tätigkeit and report your findings to the class s31 speaking discuss whether being contract or gig worker would be an option for you support your arguments by using your list of pros and cons pros and cons of the gig economy selected beneﬁts and downsides of contract workers in the gig economy upsides downsides online survey of 1,008 contract workers based in the u.s conducted in july 2017 ernst young 2017 flexibility lack of paid vacation/sick leave permanent workers treated better job uncertainty amount of control work from home advanced texts
How gig workers describe their situation
• For a large majority of contract workers, flexibility is a major boon of the gig economy.
• Half of all gig workers value the amount of control they have with regard to their job (this might refer to their working hours, their breaks, their workplaces).
• (Only) one third of all gig workers view working from home as an upside of the gig economy (while they may be able to avoid a time-consuming commute, it may be harder to collaborate with co-workers).
• Nearly two thirds of the contract workers questioned criticise a lack of paid vacation and/or sick leave (for them, not being able to work means not being paid).
• More than half of all contract workers complain that permanent workers are treated better (possible reasons: they are given higher salaries and more benefits).
• One out of two gig workers regrets the uncertainty of their long-term job prospects (job security only lasts as long as the current engagement is running).
32 million Americans do freelance or contract work for their primary income.
b) The downsides (to add to the list of cons)
• Fewer than half of them receive sick leave or retirement savings.
• You may be cheated by your clients/customers (they don’t pay).
• There is no support to fall back on (no social safety net, no unemployment insurance).
• Many contractors are still being dictated their working conditions.
• example: The driver who gets to choose neither his routes nor his fees while he has to pay for his own gas and truck repairs; when he had an operation, he had to return to work still hurting because he needed the money to support his family.
• Freelancing is stressful as well (expectations are much higher than if you were a permanent employee).
Reasons for freelancing (to add to the list of pros)
• It’s the only way to find work.
• Freelancing is trendy; it’s “the sexy thing to do”.
• wide variety of jobs (web developer, lawyers, realtors, scientists, health services management, truck driver)
• Senator Mark Warner has sponsored a bill that would enable freelancers to get benefits they can keep, regardless of where they work.
• Freelancers should band together (in unions).
• The Freelancers Union offers its members health insurance.
• The safety net should cater to high-income and low-wage freelancers.
Situation in Germany (sources: Handelsblatt, Arbeitsvertrag: Freiberufler)
• While project-related contract work is expanding, many Germans are still reluctant to embrace freelancing/contract work.
• According to a study from 2019, about 50 % of Germans holding permanent positions could envision themselves freelancing instead (Forsa Institute, as quoted in the online edition of the Handelsblatt).
• Reliable figures are hard to come by, as self-employed and freelance workers are sometimes considered together and sometimes separately.
• Currently, freelancers in Germany are mostly people engaged in the cultural sector (with doctors and lawyers lagging behind).
• The advantages of freelancing in Germany are: the freedom to choose your own projects, flexible working hours, the freedom to choose your own workplace and a higher salary.
• The disadvantages are that German freelancers have to cover their own health care and retirement plans as well as any job-related insurances on their own; additionally: job insecurity and a lack of steady income are also considered to be the downsides.
• While anyone working in Germany is entitled to a holiday by law, freelancers are often exempt, as they spend too little time with one employer; taking time off between contracts is considered too risky, however.
• The Corona pandemic has caused additional anxiety: Among IT-freelancers, for example, the hourly wages have remained stable, but the number of contracts has decreased significantly and the gender pay gap has widened.
The students refer to their list of pros and cons (see solutions to tasks 1 and 3b).
Their statements should be structured as follows:
• beginning: saying whether or not they could imagine working in the gig economy
• main part: giving arguments from the list of pros and cons
• rounding off: summarising their own opinion in one or two sentences without introducing any new ideas
• You are your own boss.
• Your workload is flexible: you determine how many jobs/engagements/contracts you want to take on (it is easier to combine work and family).
• A frequent change in assignments prevents your work from becoming too monotonous/tiring/ boring.
• Depending on the job, it might be easier to work from home (to save time and money by not having to commute).
• There is less security: in a recession, you will be less likely to find new contracts or engagements while companies might want to hang on to their permanent personnel.
• You are responsible for setting money aside for your retirement (no company plan or benefits available).
• You are responsible for paying for your own health insurance (no company plan or benefits available).
• There is less of a familiarisation phase than in permanent jobs if you are only working temporarily.
• In some jobs, you might be asked to provide your own car/computer/office space/etc.
Challenges of being a contract worker
Passend zu Advanced texts B Task 3
when globalisation meshes with robotics the losers will be the middle classes before you start divide the class in groups collect words and phrases in the context of these key terms automation blue-collar/white-collar jobs the labour market the political schisms brought by globalisation are by now well understood in rich countries the divide that matters now is between prosperous educated city dwellers and those they eclipsed during decades of international economic integration but what if globalisation’s early victors became its next losers this is the argument of richard baldwin’s the globotics upheaval an important new book that delivers timely warning to the world’s business elite recent trade and technological changes have often hurt blue-collar manufacturing but left white-collar workers unscathed baldwin thinks this is about to change via what he awkwardly calls “globotics” meaning globalisation mixed with new kinds of robotics from artificial intelligence to technologies that make it easier to outsource service jobs rather than factory workers the losers this time will be accountants doctors and lawyers cue middle-class fury “competition from software robots and telemigrants will seem monstrously unfair,” he writes “when white-collar workers start sharing the same pain as blue-collar workers some sort of backlash is inevitable.” dire predictions about job-killing robots are hardly new but baldwin’s are worth heeding baldwin’s alarm rests on mix of technological changes machine learning will soon automate tasks traditionally performed by skilled professionals from assessing insurance claims to medical diagnosis translation software which has improved rapidly following breakthroughs by google could remove language barriers entirely breaking down final obstacle for foreign workers elsewhere “telepresence” systems using large video screens will make it easier to manage teams scattered round the world as will software such as slack workplace messaging app virtual and augmented reality will arrive in workplaces too in the vein of microsoft’s experimental “holoportation” system which promises future of hollywood-style hologram meetings many of these changes remain nascent while hype about teleworking and virtual reality is often overdone still baldwin’s last book showed how earlier waves of globalisation were driven by what now seem rudimentary new systems from microsoft excel to email and cheap phone calls all of which let multinationals manage distant operations and thus reshape global manufacturing given this it seems reasonable that something as profound as artificial intelligence could have dramatic effect on white-collar work much the same is true of technologies that reduce the need for face-to-face contact one of the few things that has helped so far to insulate office workers from foreign competition the result hundreds of millions of people in cities such as hyderabad and shenzhen could soon begin performing tasks once undertaken only in prosperous economies some developing nations stand to benefit india with its sizeable englishspeaking population and armies of techies could become hub for services outsourcing just as china was for manufacturing but in the industrialised world the prognosis looks grim baldwin thinks the number of jobs in previously cosseted professions from finance and media to scientific research will fall sharply inequality could rise too as new divides open between highly skilled elites and the rest the once-prosperous middle class who have tended to back economic openness will grow angry protests targeting multinationals and big tech in particular could follow “the urban educated people who voted against populism will have whole new attitude when globalisation and automation get up close and personal,” he writes to mesh to join to work together schism division to eclipse to outclass blue-collar worker manual worker white-collar worker worker in the service sector unscathed without damage cue signal/cause for telemigrant person sitting in one country and working in offices in another dire serious drastic to heed to pay attention to in the vein of in the style of nascent about to begin multinational here international company hyderabad city in india and centre of diverse hi-tech industries shenzhen city in china and centre of commerce and telecommu nication industries hub centre heart to cosset to protect choices in work and society
• artificial intelligence
• to automate
• digitalisation/to digitalise
• to be office-based
• to do manual work/to work on the assembly line
• highly skilled labour
• unskilled labour
• service industry/service jobs
The labour market
• employer/employee/ (un)employment
• unemployment insurance
• to lay off
• “last to hire, first to fire”
• to outsource
• labour market protect
as an orthodox economist baldwin remains supportive of globalisation and its broader economic benefits earlier waves of disruption eventually created more and better jobs than they destroyed he views his “globotics” revolution as inevitable and beneficial at least in the long term “my guess is it will make for better society,” he concludes the problem is the short term baldwin advises worried workers to find jobs the “globots can’t do” notably those involving dealing with other humans he admires denmark’s system of “flexicurity” which combines flexible labour markets with generous welfare support and retraining to help workers cope with the vicissitudes of economic change there are also lessons from east asian economies such as japan where consensual culture and egalitarian welfare states help fend off populist revolts even so there remains grave risk of repeating mistakes made during the 1990s and 2000s when davos-attending globalisation enthusiasts delivered empty promises that the spoils of global growth would be redistributed to “compensate” losers from trade and integration the fact that this almost never happened explains much of the backlash that followed all of this matters for anglo-saxon nations in particular as they seem doubly vulnerable “globotics” will hit all advanced industrialised economies but economically open english-speaking countries will probably bear the brunt first at the same time it seems implausible country such as the uk will build new and expensive danish-style system of labour market protections given the legacy of budget cuts and political divisions that have hobbled its government since the 2008 financial crisis there may of course be perverse opportunity here political leaders who failed to do much to help struggling steel and car workers might suddenly prove responsive when faced with angry management consultants and solicitors but it is faint hope as america and britain tear themselves apart over the legacy of the last wave of globalisation the odds that they will be well prepared for the next one still look slim james crabtree financial times 2019 comprehension read the text closely divide it into passages referring to the following four topics the past the present the future advice given note line numbers for each compare earlier waves of globalisation and professor baldwin’s “globotics” revolution present and future focus on the agents of change the affected groups and the consequences explain who will benefit from these future changes and why analysis examine the intention(s of the author by considering the tone language and argumentative strategies used s10 language go through the text and expand the word lists you started in task use the information gathered in the comprehension task and the vocabulary from your lists to write short summary about professor baldwin’s book which might appear on an online bookseller’s website evaluation the article concludes that among highly-industrialised nations englishspeaking countries will feel the consequences of ‘globotics’ first discuss whether you see germany at similar risk s14.1 orthodox conservative devout disruption change disarrangement vicissitude unpleasant development consensual with the agreement of all people involved egalitarian fair just davos place in switzerland which hosts the annual meeting of the world economic forum spoils goods stolen or taken brunt shock impact implausible unlikely difficult to believe legacy here effect outcome to hobble sth/sb to restrict the progress of sb/ sth perverse here umgekehrt gegenläufig advanced texts
• The tone of the text is straightforward and alarmist.
• It is critical of the United States and the UK and their inability to deal with the aftermath of the last wave of globalisation.
• The text uses terminology covering automation/digitalisation and economy in general.
• The register is rather formal (by using words such as “schism”, l. 1, “nascent”, l. 26 or “to cosset” l. 41)
• The author mixes long, descriptive sentences with short sentences to emphasise his point (“Cue middle class fury.”, ll. 11 – 12; “The problem is the short term”, l. 53, “But it is a faint hope.”, l. 73)
The author repeatedly compares past waves of globalisation with Prof. Baldwin’s prognoses about the “globotics” revolution in the future by equating the fate blue-collar workers faced in the past with the destiny of white-collar workers.
The author wants to inform the reader about Prof. Baldwin’s book and promote awareness among his readers; assuming he is addressing white-collar workers (article was published in the Financial Times), he wants to alert those affected most by the change of the upcoming disruptions.
a) Possible terms that could be added
international economic integration, foreign workers, multinationals, economic openness, retraining, global growth (labour market), skilled professionals, business elite, accountants, doctors, lawyers (white-collar workers), factory workers (blue-collar jobs), software robots, machine learning, jobkilling robots, telemigrants/teleworking, workplace messaging app, virtual and augmented reality (automation)
b) Short summary about Professor Baldwin’s book
1. The first sentence mentions the author, title, text type and main idea of the book: Prof. Richard Baldwin, The Globotics Upheaval, book about how “globotics” – a meshing of globalisation and robotics – will cause a major disruption due to the outsourcing of service jobs
2. The main arguments are summed up briefly:
• While past waves of globalisation have affected the manufacturing industry, future waves will upset the service industry and skilled labour.
• These changes are mostly driven by technological advances in artificial intelligence, communication and automation.
• This will lead to a major backlash from the middle classes.
• English-speaking countries will be the first to be affected, with the UK and the US being ill-suited to the task of coping with this next phase of globalisation.
3. Catchy phrase to round the summary off, motivating customers to buy the book: When globotics is coming to get you, better be prepared: what white-collar workers will be facing in the next decades.
Reasons why Germany might be at a similar risk
• It is also a highly industrialised country with a strong service industry.
• German labour costs are higher than in India or China.
• Pricing is competitive in Germany – getting the best deal for their money is important for many people (which is why companies are looking to cut costs and outsource jobs to cheaper labour markets).
Reasons why Germany might not be at a similar risk
• Germany traditionally has a stronger welfare system than the UK or the United States.
• While populist parties have been able to increase their following in recent years, support for them has levelled off.
• The job centre, a national agency for employment with local, service-oriented outlets, offers a wide range of retraining programmes for workers who have been laid off.
• For services to be retained in the German language, there is less foreign competition (not many people speak German in Asian countries).
c) Who will benefit from these future changes and why
• India will profit: because of “its sizeable English-speaking population and armies of techies it could become a hub for services outsourcing” (ll. 37 – 39).
• China/Shenzhen will benefit because it is a communication centre with millions of skilled workers.
• Eventually Western, industrialised societies will improve (although the reasons remain vague).
In Aufgabe 16 im Diff pool finden schwächere S Unterstützung für die Bearbeitung von Teilaufgabe b). Die Liste mit den technologischen Änderungen und deren Auswirkungen erleichtert ihnen den geforderten Vergleich.Drucken
conducting study in small groups you are going to conduct study highlighting the aspirations dreams and prospects of young germans regarding their future step choosing topic your theme should relate to one or several aspects of the topic such as family/background expectations restrictions possibilities activism/political involvement higher education vs vocational training abitur university ausbildungsberufe dream jobs job perspectives optimistic/pessimistic outlook the compatibility of family and work step choosing method of research in your group decide how you want to go about researching your topic you could do survey of your class year group/friends/… or you could search german media online for articles covering your topic step researching your topic survey create list of questions in german you might want to check other surveys in this topic for inspiration e.g the oecd survey about irish teenagers and their career choices and the podcast welche berufswünsche haben jugendliche decide whether you want to do an online survey or hand out questionnaires set time limit and distribute the survey online research come up with list of search words and divide them up among your group make sure you include podcasts in your search as well s29 step sorting your findings survey decide which findings you want to illustrate using graphs charts or infographics research each student in your group chooses one source go through your source by following the steps from the abi skills workshop step s26 step writing your results when writing your results make sure you mediate typically german terms such as ‘abitur’ and ‘ausbildungsberufe’ by using the appropriate english paraphrases survey summarise each visual graph chart or infographic in short text which interprets your findings use the article “irish teenagers ignoring 21st century careers in favour of …” as model highlight differences to other countries you have learned about in this topic research write short informative text about your findings highlight differences to other countries you have learned about in this chapter step presenting your results combine your results for example by printing them out and creating displays for your classroom or using an online tool for collaborative group work s22 step discussing your results on the basis of your displays or online presentations discuss your findings in class taking into account what you have learned about young people from other countries try to determine what makes germany unique in globalised world s23 topic task
Presenting the results of your work in a written text
• introduction: briefly states the topic of your survey and its most striking result
• main body: deals with your findings in detail, focussing on the most interesting aspects and interpreting them
• conclusion: sums up your results briefly and offers an outlook on how things might/could change or offers a solution
What possibly makes Germany unique
• the manifold choices available to young people (different schooling options, various choices for post-secondary education: university, universities of applied sciences, vocational training)
• Because of its high level of education, Germany equips its students well for international competition (i.e. with regard to their language proficiency).
• German students are interested in a wide variety of professions, which increases their job opportunities (cf. OECD study and – possibly – the student’s own surveys).
• Germany is (still) a country of innovation.
• In Germany, future economic damage to the middle class and the service industry will be counterbalanced by a strong welfare system and retraining options offered by the state.
creative task more practice after texts a/ task rewrite the part of the story in which yates stops in the doorway this time the narrator sits up in bed and addresses his brother what happens what do they talk about evaluation help with texts a/task make list of the reasons you can give for the narrator’s silence and compare it with your partner together decide on ranking what reason is more likely what feelings and thoughts were perhaps more important for the narrator which reason is more understandable for the narrator’s parents analysis more practice after texts a/ task 8a analyse the reasons the author gives for the lack of political engagement of young people discuss are the same reasons applicable to you and your peers evaluation more practice after advanced texts a/task the author claims that having university degree serves as leverage for better-paid job in the united states discuss what qualifications and skills could do the same for young people in germany before you start help with advanced texts a/task the following ideas and expressions can help you talk about associations with bell jar in the context of women’s lives in the 1950s to feel the need to proctect sb to value sb to overprotect sb to keep safe from harm to isolate sb from others to control to underestimate the strength of women the weaker sex to suffocate freedom of movement to deprive sb of certain rights lack of freedom and choices emancipation women’s rights topic choices in work and society speaking help with introduction/task use these aspects to structure the notes for your statement your qualifications and abilities what the job demands why the job’s perks appeal to you what you can do to deal with its downsides conclusion writing help with introduction/task 3b read the tip “writing good caption” then read these two captions and decide which one is better companies expect practical knowledge from university graduates entering the workforce university graduates should have done internships before they apply for ‘real’ job improve this caption for picture university students need to work as interns to be taken seriously as employees when they apply for their first job language help with abi skills/task you can use these words to paraphrase the expressions vocational training apprenticeship on-the-job training university education dual training vocational school occupation job to require training leaving certificate access to university professional trained on the job instructor general university entrance qualification writing help with texts a/task 2b you can use these words and expressions to talk about the narrator‘s feelings to be frustrated sad to feel lost without sb to be lonely to be disappointed by sb’s actions or behaviour to be devastated to be ashamed of sth or sb to feel sorry for sb to understand sb’s feelings and actions to regret having done sth to worry about sb to be afraid of sth tip caption is short text under picture that describes it or explains what the people in it are doing or saying choices in work and society
analysis more practice after advanced texts a/task copy and complete the following grid with elements in the text that reveal information on esther’s personality text elements examples personality imagery steering new york/ myself/ nothing lack of selfconfidence repetition there were twelve of us analysis help with advanced texts a/ task 7a think about these aspects when describing the lives of the women what does esther say about the other girls what kind of life have they experienced and where had esther been until her trip to new york what are they waiting for writing more practice after advanced texts a/task both men and women have more options and choices today than ever before discuss in which situations they might feel like esther that they do not take full opportunity of these options explain the reasons young people might give today for not making use of their choices evaluation more practice after texts b/ task the second text states that you don’t need to be in the office to to be effective and that jobs can be done remotely too discuss the pros and cons of working from your home office taking into consideration the experiences people had during the lockdowns in the covid crisis evaluate your arguments to assess whether in the future the workplace and living place will become one and the same for most people today working in an office brainstorming more practice after texts b/task the oecd campaign “the future of work” states “we must act now for the future to work for everyone” explain why this line is play on words and what it means create new slogan for the campaign in which you use this play on words speaking more practice after texts b/ task 13 parents who stay in the workforce are often obliged to outsource the care of their children at very early age work with partner to make list of arguments that speak against this practice then use your list and the information on this page to stage panel discussion on the pros and cons of mothers and fathers working away from home and leaving their babies in the care of others evaluation help with advanced texts b/ task 7b this list of technological changes and their effects can help you compare waves of globalisation completion of round-the-world fibre-optic cable link fast and cheap transatlantic communication nanotechnology faster running computer processors cloud storage – mass data accumulation/easy data accessibility the world wide web easy and fast access to information and communication birth of dolly the first cloned sheep global race for advances in biotechnology smartphones and apps connecting with people all over the world/ creating new job opportunitites diff pool
mediation what is mediation you are the mediating link passing on information from source in one language text(s statistics visuals infographics or spoken information to recipient who normally only speaks another language and needs some of this information for particular purpose your job is to ‘repackage’ relevant parts of this information into new mediating text type and send it to be used in the correct language for that new purpose you must clarify whose ideas/facts they are by naming the source don’t mix this information with what you know or think never just translate every sentence or summarise all of the text some parts are irrelevant for your task you will need to go through the whole text to find all the information you need then restructure and/or paraphrase it to make your own communication clear add suitable ‘packaging’ text before and after the information you give e.g if you are writing an email greet the reader say why you are giving him/her this information and end the email formally or informally according to the situation step looking carefully at the task note what points the addressee needs to know keep that in focus as you read step reading the original source(s after reading/listening once for gist note source type title author’s/speaker’s name and intention/ tone for passing on information about the source s11 read again mark/note the task-relevant key words or paragraphs don’t stop after finding one point check for more step preparing your mediation check the task again for text type and length addressee relationship between you for register and style rearrange all points into useful order step writing your mediation text use appropriate language ‘packaging’ sentences and style for the situation introduce the source(s and explain why you are passing this information on write each section in your own words in suitable structure for the addressee paraphrase if you can’t translate explain cultural or idiomatic terms e.g ‘ard’ german public tv channel or ‘fernweh’ longing to travel far away step editing and checking s12.2 check for ‘false friends’ and correct wrong spelling word order tenses prepositions and style read again your text should sound natural s25 just the right information for jim’s talk just the important points jim needs and let me add what my german friend found out in different language different style length and purpose mediating skills skills
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Green Line Oberstufe - Schülerbuch
Die Autorinnen und Autoren sind im blätterbaren Buch auf Seite 2 genannt.
Textquellen: 38.1 (Zitat) Candice Pires © 2018 Guardian News & Media Ltd.; 38.2 (Zitat) Karen Gilchrist, www.cnbc.com, 23rd January 2020; 38.3 (Zitat) Ng Kang-chung, Martin Choi, South China Morning Post, 15th May 2019; 42–43 www. make-it-in-germany.com, Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie; 43 Demografieportal des Bundes und der Länder, https://www.demografie-portal.de, Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung; 45 © 2011, Matt Krampitz; 46–47 Adam Eichen, 10 October 2018, www.yesmagazine.org; 48 Lisa Hänel, Deutsche Welle, www.dw.com, 7th June 2019; 48–49 Katherine Donnelly, Irish teenagers ignoring 21st century careers in favour of traditional occupations, Irish Independent, 22nd January 2020; 50 From The New York Times. © 2018 The New York Times Company. All rights reserved. Used under license. https://www.nytimes.com; 51–52 © 1963, Sylvia Plath; 54 Serenitie Wang, Daniel Shane, https://edition.cnn.com, CNN Business, 16 April 2019; 55 From The New York Times. © 2019 The New York Times Company. All rights reserved. Used under license. https://www.nytimes.com; 57 (Task 13.1, Zitat) © 2016, Theresa J. Whitmarsh; 57 (Task 13.2, Zitat) ©2013 Christine Lagarde; 59–60 The Finacical Times: James Crabtree, 2019, The Globotics Upheaval by Richard Baldwin – white-collar disruption, Financial Times/ft.com, 23rd January 2019. Used under licence from the Financial Times. All Rights Reserved.
Bildquellen: Cover.1 plainpicture GmbH & Co. KG RF (DEEPOL by plainpicture/Bonfanti Diego), Hamburg; Cover.2 Getty Images Plus (iStock/Wittayayut), München; 38.1 Getty Images Plus (FatCamera), München; 38.2 Alamy stock photo (Michael Wheatley), Abingdon; 38.3 stock. adobe.com (Gorodenkoff), Dublin; 38.4 stock.adobe.com (svitlychnaja), Dublin; 38.5 Getty Images (Jordan Siemens), München; 39.1 Gap year association website, 2020, National Alumni Survey; 43.1 Statistisches Bundesamt, 2020; 44.1 stock.adobe.com (Wellnhofer Designs), Dublin; 46.1 stock. adobe.com (paultarasenko), Dublin; 46.2 stock.adobe. com (Viacheslav Iakobchuk), Dublin; 46.3 Getty Images Plus (AzmanL), München; 48.1 Alamy stock photo (ZUMA Press Inc), Abingdon; 51.1 Getty Images Plus (Magdevski), München; 53.1 ShutterStock.com RF (Ka_Li), New York, NY; 53.2 Picture-Alliance (AP/Matt Dunham), Frankfurt; 54.1 Alamy stock photo (MediaPunch Inc), Abingdon; 54.2 Getty Images Plus (Christopher Robbins), München; 55.1 ShutterStock.com RF (Phil Stafford), New York, NY; 56.1 Alamy stock photo (Federico Caputo), Abingdon; 56.2 Alamy stock photo (Ivan Chiosea), Abingdon; 56.3 Alamy stock photo (Miriam Dörr), Abingdon; 56.4 Getty Images Plus (monkeybusinessimages), München; 57.1 nach: Statista/World Economic Forum 2020; 57.2 nach: OECD, 2020/2020 National Alumni Survey; 57.3 nach: OECD, WAPO.ST/WONKBLOG; 57.4 nach: The Our World in Data website, 2019 (from OECD, World Bank, Gapminder, HYDE, UN); 58.1 nach: EY/Statista; 58.2 Alamy stock photo (ZUMA Press Inc), Abingdon; 58.3 Alamy stock photo (Jeffrey Isaac Greenberg 3+), Abingdon; 60.1 Getty Images Plus (Helen King), München; 61.1 stock.adobe.com (Antonioguillem), Dublin; 61.2 Thinkstock (iStockphoto), München; 61.3 Thinkstock (iStockphoto), München.
Die angegebenen Seitenzahlen beziehen sich auf den Verwendungsort im Schülerbuch.
Green Line Oberstufe - Workbook
Die Autorinnen und Autoren sind im blätterbaren Buch auf Seite 1 genannt.
Textquelle: 18 Laura Naima Kabelka "So hatte ich mir das Ganze nicht vorgestellt", aus SPIEGEL.de, vom 05.10.2020
Bildquelle: Cover.1 plainpicture GmbH & Co. KG RF (DEEPOL by plainpicture/Bonfanti Diego), Hamburg; Cover.2 Getty Images Plus (iStock / Wittayayut), München
Die angegebenen Seitenzahlen beziehen sich auf den Verwendungsort im Workbook.
Green Line Oberstufe - Lehrerbuch
Die Autorinnen und Autoren sind im blätterbaren Buch auf Seite 2 genannt.
Textquellen: Klausur 1: „Gender equality at work is a matter of respect, not just money“: Gaby Hinsliff ©2018 Guardian News & Media Ltd.
Klausur 2: „Studie zur Gehaltstransparenz: Mir doch egal, wie viel du verdienst„: "Mir doch egal, wie viel du verdienst", SPIEGEL.de, Armin Himmelrath, 07.01.2019
Die angegebenen Seitenzahlen beziehen sich auf den Verwendungsort im Lehrerbuch.
Alle Quellenangaben finden sich, wenn nicht unten angegeben, direkt in den Materialien, z. B. in der Fußzeile der Dokumente.
„Welche Berufswünsche haben Jugendliche?“: SWR2 Impuls: Welche Berufswünsche haben Jugendliche? 22.01.2020
„The challenges of being in the new contract workforce“: ©2018 National Public Radio, Inc. NPR news report titled “Will Work For No Benefits: The Challenges Of Being In The New Contract Workforce” as originally broadcast on NPR’s Morning Edition on January 23, 2018, and is used with the permission of NPR. Any unauthorized duplication is strictly prohibited.
„Why jobs of the future won't feel like work, Part 1 and Part 2“: 2017, BoClips / Ted Talks
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